نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاوزی، دانشگاه ولایت، ایرانشهر، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه بیوتکنولوژی و به نژادی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولایت، ایرانشهر، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی بر برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی اسفرزه توده محلی ایرانشهر در سال زراعی 98-1397 در شهرستان ایرانشهر، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار و چهار تکرار به‌اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای کودی شامل کود زیستی فسفات بارور2، کود زیستی فسفات بارور3، کود دامی گاوی، سوپرفسفات‌تریپل و ورمی‌کمپوست بودند که با شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) نیز مقایسه شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر کودها بر اکثر ویژگی‌های موردبررسی در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار شد. تأثیر تیمارها بر ویژگی‌های شاخص تورم، شاخص سبزینگی و ارتفاع بوته در سطح احتمال پنج درصد معنی­دار شد. بیش‌ترین درصد نیتروژن دانه (24/6) و پتاسیم دانه (42/0) تعداد پنجه در بوته، تعداد سنبله، طول سنبله، وزن تر بوته، شاخص تورم، کربوهیدرات بذر و شاخص سبزینگی تحت تأثیر کود دامی حاصل شد. حداکثر مقدار طول ریشه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن خشک بوته، وزن هزار­دانه، عملکرد بوته، عملکرد در هکتار، موسیلاژ، پروتئین، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b و کلروفیل کل تحت تأثیر کود ورمی­کمپوست به‌دست آمد. تیمار ورمی­کمپوست عملکرد دانه و کلروفیل کل را به‌ترتیب به میزان 56/46 و 76/32 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. هم‌چنین شاهد و کود زیستی بارور۲ به‌ترتیب بیش‌ترین میزان تورم و بیش‌ترین درصد فسفر دانه را به‌خود اختصاص دادند. به‌طوربه‌طورکلی این نتیجه حاصل می‌شود که کود آلی ورمی­کمپوست بر اکثر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی گیاه اسفرزه به نسبت تأثیر بیش‌تری دارد و استفاده از آن مناسب می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forssk.) as a ‎Medicinal Plant

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolshakoor Raissi 1
  • Fatemeh Nosrati 2
  • Hossein piri 3

1 Instructor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Velayat, Iranshahr, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Student, Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Velayat, Iranshahr, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This study aims at investigating the effect of organic, biological, and chemical fertilizers on some quantitative and qualitative traits of local mass of Iranshahr Isabgol, as a medicinal plant during 2018-2019 crop year in a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments and 4 replications in Iranshahr. Fertilizer treatments are no fertilizer application (control), Phosphate Barvar 2 biofertilizer, Phosphate Barvar 3 biofertilizer, Cow manure, Superphosphate triple, and Vermicompost. The results show that fertilizers’ effect on most traits have been significant at the 1% probabilify level. The effect of fertilizer treatments on plant Height and Carbohydrates has not been significant but it has been considerable on Inflation index and Greenness index at 5% probability level. Maximum number of tillers per plant, number of spikes, spike length, fresh weight of plant, swelling index, Carbohydrate, Seed Nitrogen, Seed Potassium, and Greenness index aree obtained under the influence of manure, and traits including root length, plant height, number of seeds per spike, dry weight Plant, 1000-seed weight, plant yield, yield per hectare, Mucilage, Protein, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Total chlorophyll are obtained under the influence of vermicompost. Vermicompost treatment increases grain yield and total chlorophyll by 46.56% and 32.76%, respectively, compared to the control. Also, control and Phosphate Barvar 2 biofertilizer have had the highest swelling and the highest percentage of Seed Phosphorus, respectively. In general, it is concluded that vermicompost has a greater effect on most quantitative and qualitative traits of Isabgol, and its use is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Isabgol
  • organic manure
  • biological
  • chemical
  • Quantitative and Qualitative propertises
Ahmadian, A., Ghanbari, A., Siahsar, B., Heidari, M., Ramroodi, M., & Moosavi-Nik, S.M. (2010). Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 8(4), 668-676.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenol oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24, 1-15.
Atik, A. (2013). Effects of planting density and treatment with vermicompost on the morphological characteristics of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.). Compost Science and Utilization, 21, 87-98.
Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N., Edwards, C. A., & Metzger, J. D. (2002). Incorporation of earthwormprocessed organic wastes into greenhouse container media for production of marigolds. Bioresource Technology,81(2)103-108.
Darzi, M. T., Qalavand, A., & Rejali, F. (2008). The effect of mycorrhiza application, vermicompost and biophosphate fertilizer on flowering, biological yield and root coexistence in fennel medicinal plant. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(1), 88-109. (In Persian)
Delin, S., Linden, B., & Berglund, K. (2004). Yield and protein response to fertilizer nitrogen in different parts of a cereal field: potential of site-specific fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy. Pp: 1-11.
Demir, S. (2004). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on some physiological growth parameters of pepper. Turk Journal of Biology, 28, 85-90.
Dori, M. A., & Alamdar, M. (2005). Effect of Seed Amount and Planting Date in Dryland Conditions on Quantity and Quality of Seed Mucilage of Plantago ovate. Journal of Research and Construction in Natural Resources, 57, 81-89. (In Persian).
Ebrahimzadeh, H., Mir Masoumi, M., & Fakhrat Tabatabai, M. (1998). Study of mucilage production aspects in several regions of Iran with cultivation of asparagus, turmeric and psyllium. Journal of Research and Construction, 22, 34-45. (In Persian)
Edwards, C. A., Arancon N. Q., & Greytak, S. (2006). Effects of vermicompost teas on plant growth and disease. BioCycle, 47, 28-31.
Fakhr Tabatabai, S. M., Mir Masoumi, M., & Mir Haji, M. T. (1990). Study on cultivation of two similar medicinal species in Iran, the fourth seminar on medicinal plants in Iran. Faculty of Pharmacy. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. (In Persian).
Fikrettin, S., Chakmakji, R., & Kantar, F. (2004). Sugar beet and barley yield in relation to inoculation with N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Plant and Soil, 256, 123-129.
Flagella, Z., Pastore, D., Campanile, R. G., & Fonzo, N. D. (1995). The quantum yield or photosynthetic Application to precision agriculture and crop physiology. Journal of Special Publication, Madison, 170, 224-233.
Ghani. A., Hussain, M., & Hassan, A. (2000). Interactive effect of nitrogen and water stress on leaf area of sunflower. Pakistan Biology Science, 3, 989-990.
Gholami, A., & Biari, A. (2007). The effect of seed priming by Aztobacter and Azospirillium strains on growth characteristics, yield and yield components of maize. The Second National Conference on Ecological Agriculture of Iran. 12 pages. (In Persian)
Grieve, M. (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs & Trees with Their Modern Scientific Uses. Dover Publications. Pp: 17-32.
Hero, A. (1984). Color flora of Iran. Forest and Rangeland Research Institute Publications,1, 134. (In Persian)
Hosseinzadeh, S. R., Amiri, H., & Ismaili, A. (2018). Evaluation of photosynthesis, physiological, and biochemical responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Pirouz) under water deficit stress and use of vermicompost fertilizer. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17 (11), 2426-2437.
Javaheri, Sh., Abdollahian-Noghabi M., Kashani, A., Noshad, H., & Habibi, D. (2012). Effect of leaf position and age on the nitrogen content and chlorophyll meter values in sugar beet. Iranian journal of crop science, 13(1), 87-98. (In Persian).  
Joshi, R., Singh, J., & Vig, A. P. (2014). Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: effect on growth, yield and quality of plants. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol, 14, 137-159.
Kalyanasundaram, N. K., Patel, P. B., & Dalal, K. C. (1982). Nitrogen needs of Plantago ovata Forsk. in relation to the available nitrogen in soil. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(4), 240-242.
Keles, Y., & Oncel, I. (2004). Growth and solute composition on two wheat species experiencing combined influence of stress conditions. Russian Journal of Plant Physiol, 51,203-208.
Kokalis-Buerelle, N., Kloepper, J. W., & Reddy, M. S. (2006). Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria as transplant amendments and their effects on Indigenous Rhizosphere microorganisms. Journal of Applied Soil Ecology, 31, 91-100.
Lotfi, A., Vahabi Sedehi, A. A., Ganbari, A., & Heydari, M. (2009). The effect of deficit irrigation and manure on quantity and quality traits of plantago ovata Forssk. in Sistan region. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 24 (4), 506-518. (In Persian)
Majidian, M., Ghalavand, A., Kamgar Haghighi, A. A., & Karimian, N. (2008). Effect of drought stress, nitrogen fertilizer and manure on chlorophyll meter reading, grain yield and yield components in grain maize cv. SC 704. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(3), 303-330. (in Persian).
Major, D. J., Baumeister, R., Toure, A., & Zhao, S. (2003). Digital imaging and spectral techniques electron transport evaluated by cholophyll fluorescence as indicator of drought tolerance in durum wheat. Journal of Separation Science, 18, 125-202.
Malakouti, M. J. (2008). Sustainable Agriculture and Yield Increase by Optimizing Fertilizer Consumption in Iran. Publication of Agricultural Education. 168 p. (In Persian)
Manish, K. P., Bhakti, T., & Avinash, M., B, Jha. (2018). Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of a polysaccharide extracted from psyllium (P. ovata) leaves. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 118 (A), 976-987.
Mardani, F., & Amoo Agaee, R. (2016). The effect of vermicompost extract and solid vermicompost on the emergence and growth parameters of Plantago psyllium. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Cultivation, 7(25), 1-13. (In Persian)
Marechesini, A. (1988). Long term effects of quality-compost treatment on soil. Plant and Soil, 106, 253-261.
Mozaffarian, W. (2015). Recognition of medicinal and aromatic plants of Iran. Farhang Moaser Publications. Second edition. Pp: 1350. (In Persian)
Moradi, R. (2009). Investigation of the effect of biological and organic fertilizers on yield, grain yield components and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Master's thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 104 pages. (In Persian)
Mupambwa, H. A., & Mnkeni, P. N. S. (2018). Optimizing the vermicomposting of organic wastes amended with inorganic materials for production of nutrient-rich organic fertilizers: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 10577-10595.
Mupambwa, H. A., Ncoyi, K., & Mnkeni, P. N. S. (2017). Potential of chicken manure vermicompost as a substitute for pine bark based growing mediafor vegetables. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 19, 1007-1011.
Nejatzadeh, F. (2020). Effect of biofertilizer and magnesium sulfate on the components of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 27, 101671.
Norman, Q., & Arancon, C. (2006). Effects of humic acids from vermicomposts on plant growth. Europian Journal, Pp: 89-103.
Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., & Keeney, D. R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. (2nd edition). Pp: 345.
Parvaneh, V. (2004). Food quality control and chemistry experiments. University of Tehran Press. 332 pages. (In Persian)
Pouryousef, M., mazaheri, D., Chaiechi, M. R., Rahimi, A., & Tavakoli, A. (2018). Effect of different soil fertilizing treatments on some of agro morphological traits and mucilage of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk). Enternational Journal of Crop Production, 3(2), 193-213. (In Persian).
Puryousef, M., Mazaheri, D., Chai Chi, M. R., Rahimi, R., & Tavakoli, A. (2010). The effect of different soil fertility treatments on some agromorphological traits and mucilage of (Plantago ovata Forsk). Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 3(2), 193-213.
Pouryousef, M., Mazaheri, D., Yousefi, A. R., Rahimi, A., & Tavakoli, A. (2010). Evaluation of grain qualitative traits of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) underlimited irrigation regimes and different fertilizing treatments. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30 (3), 414-424.
Raissi A. Sh, Galavi, M., Zafaraneieh, M., Soluki, M., & Mousavi, S. R. (2013). Biochemical Change of Seeds and Yield of Isabgol (Plantago ovata) under Bio-fertilizer, Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2(6), 112-117.
Ravindran, B., Lee, S. R., Chang, S. W., Nguye, D. D., Chung, W. J., Balamuralikrishnan B., Hupenyu, A. M., Mariadhas, V. A., Naif, A., Al‐D., & Ganesan, S. (2019). Positive effects of compost and vermicompost produced from tannery wasteanimal fleshing on the growth and yield of commercial crop-tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plant. Journal of Environmental Management, 234, 154-158.
Rayan, J. R., Estefan, G., & Rashid, A. (2001). Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual, (2nd edition). ICARDA, Syria. Pp: 231.
Saeid Nezhad, A. H., & Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2010). Effect of Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties, Yield, Yield Components and Essence Percentage of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum). Journal of Horticultural Science, 24 (1), 38-44. (In Persian)
Saghafi, K., Ahmadi, J., Asgharzadeh, A., & Bakhtiari, S. (2013). The effect of microbial inoculants on physiological responses of two wheat cultivars under salt stress. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 1, 421-431.
Shahbazi, Z., Salehi, A., Movahedi Dehnavi, M., & Farajee, H. (2019). The effect of organic fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungus on morphological characteristics, shoot biomass and mucilage of borage (Borago officinalis). Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science, 50 (3), 561-570. (In Persian)
Swaefy, M. F., Weaam, R. A., Sabh, A. Z., & Ragab, A. A. (2007). Effect of some chemical and biofertilizers on peppermint plants grown in sandy soil. journal of Agricultural Science, 52(2), 451-463.
Tohidinia, M. A., Mazaheri, D., Hosseini, S. M. B., & Madani, H. (2013). Effect of biofertilizerBarvar-2 and chemical phosphorus fertilizer application on kernel yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays cv. SC704). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 15(4), 295-307.
Torabi-Giglou, M., Noroozi, H., Maleki Lajayer, H., & Dehdar, B. (2020). Effects of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrient Content of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.). Journal of Vegetables Sciences, 3 (6), 109-121. (In Persian)
Truong, V. D., Avula, R. Y., Pecota, K. V., & Yencho, G. C. (2018). Sweetpotato production, processing, and nutritional quality. In: Siddiq, M; Uebersax, M. A. (Eds), Handbook of vegetables and vegetable processing, Volume II, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, X., Ren, Y., Zhang, S., Chen, Y., & Wang, N. (2017). Applications of organic manure increased maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water productivity in a semi-arid region. Agricultural Water Management, 187, 88-98.
Yadav, R. L., Keshwa, G. L., & Yadav, S. S. (2003). Effect of integrated use of FYM and sulphure on growth and yield of isabgol. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 25, 668-671.