نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از مهم­ترین اهداف کشت گیاهان دارویی، بهبود محتوای اسانس آن­ها می‌باشد که تحت تأثیر عواملی محیطی از جمله شرایط تنش کم­آبیاری و تغذیه­ای قرار خواهد گرفت. بدین منظور، مطالعه­ای سه‌ساله به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه ارومیه در سال‌های زراعی 96-1393 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سطوح آبیاری در سه سطح (آبیاری نرمال، آبیاری تکمیلی و شرایط دیم) و فاکتور فرعی در شش سطح در برگیرنده تیمارهای کودی شامل کود زیستی (ازتوبارور یک+ فسفات بارور دو) همراه و بدون ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی کامل و کود نانو کامل همراه و بدون ورمی‌کمپوست بود. نمونه­برداری و آنالیز صفات در سال زراعی 96-1395 (سال سوم کاشت) انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد تیمارهای آبیاری تکمیلی و دیم به‌ترتیب ضمن کاهش غلظت عناصر نیتروژن (94/14 و 72/7 درصد)، فسفر (20/31 و 71/37 درصد)، پتاسیم (58/11 و 14/9 درصد)، مس (27/14 و 96/28 درصد)، و وزن خشک کل آویشن (22/33 و 14/56 درصد) سبب افزایش غلظت عناصر آهن (08/8 و 05/66 درصد)، روی (82/16 و 16/7 درصد) و عملکرد اسانس (32/25 و 11/37 درصد) نسبت به شرایط آبیاری نرمال شد. کاربرد تلفیقی کود نانو با ورمی‌کمپوست در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و کاربرد کود نانو در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی و دیم منجر به بهبود عملکرد اسانس (به­ترتیب 70/2، 39/3 و 78/3 درصد) شد. به‌طور کلی بهبود عملکرد اسانس در شرایط نامساعد محیطی به­هنگام کاربرد کود نانو، نشان­دهنده کارایی این کود در تأمین عناصر غذایی و دستیابی به اهداف کشاورزی پایدار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Quantitative Yield, Essential Oil Yield, and Nutrient Content of Thyme in Response to Fertilizer Sources and ‎Different Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad-Tayyeb Bayazidi-Aghdam 1
  • Jalal Jalilian 2
  • hamid Mohammadi 3

1 Ph.D. Student, Department of plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Medicinal plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

One of the most important goals of cultivating medicinal plants is to improve their essential oil content, which will be affected by environmental factors such as water deficit stress and nutritional stress conditions. In this regard, a three-year split plot study has been done as a randomized complete block design with three replications in Urmia University at the 2014-2017 cropping years. The main factors include irrigation regimes in three levels (normal irrigation, supplementary irrigation, and rainfed conditions), and the sub-factor at six levels include fertilizer resources {biofertilizer (Azotobaror 1 + Phosphate-Barvar 2), complete chemical fertilizer and complete Nano fertilizer with and without vermicompost. Sampling and analysis of traits are performed in the cropping year 2016-2017 (third year of planting). Compared to normal irrigation, the results show that supplementary irrigation and rainfed treatments while reducing the concentration of nitrogen (14.94% and 7.72%), phosphorus (31.20% and 37.71%), potassium (11.58% and 9.14%), copper (14.27% and 28.96%), and total dry weight (33.22% and 56.14%), increase the concentration of iron (8.08% and 66.05%), zinc (16.82% and 7.16%), and essential oil yield (25.32% and 37.11%) of thyme, respectively. Combined application of nano fertilizer with vermicompost under normal irrigation conditions, and application of nano fertilizer in supplementary and rainfed irrigation conditions has improved essential oil yield by 2.7%, 3.39%, and 3.78%, respectively. In general, the improvement of essential oil yield in water deficit stress, during the application of nano fertilizer, indicates the efficiency of this fertilizer in providing nutrients and achieving sustainable agricultural goals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • Essential oil yield
  • nano fertilizer
  • vermicompost
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