عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to study the effect of silicon on biochemical traits, leaf relative water content and yield of two bread and durum wheat cultivars under late season water stress conditions, a split factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was conducted in three replicates during 2017-2018 growing season. Treatments included of water stress in two levels included normal irrigation and water stress at the end of flowering, silicon (Si) spraying at 0, 1, 2, and 3 mM and two wheat cultivars consisted of Chamran as bread wheat and Shabrang as durum wheat. The results showed that the main effects of late seasonal water stress, cultivar and silicon on leaf relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and yield were significant. Under water stress conditions, when plants exposed to 3 mM silicon RWC increased 50% compared to no silicon application conditions. Grain protein under water stress conditions and 3 mM silicon was 59.3% higher than no silicon condition. Also, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content under water stress conditions and application of 3 mM silicon increased 42.5 and 44.9%, respectively. In Chamran cultivar, application of silicon at 3 mM increased total chlorophyll content, carotenoid content, RWC and grain protein 40, 43, 42 and 56.4%, respectively, which caused 19.7% increase in grain yield compared to Shabrang cultivar under water stress conditions. In general, foliar application of 3 mM silicon by improving total chlorophyll content, carotenoid content and RWC can play an important role in increasing yield under water stress conditions.
Alizadeh, A. (1999). Soil-water-plant relationship. Fredowsi Univ. Press. P, 279- 280. (in Persian)
Alkier, A.C., Racz, G.J. & Soper, R.j. (1972). Effects of foliar soil-applied nitrogen and soil nitrate-nitrogen level on the protein content of neepawa wheat. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 52, 301-309.
Amiri, A., Bagheri, A.A., Khajeh, M., Najafabadi, N. & Yadollahi, B. (2013). Effect of silicon foliar application on yield and antioxidant enzymes of safflower under drought stress. Journal of Crop Research, 9, 372-361. (in Persian)
Antolin, M.C., Yoller, J. & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1995). Effect of temporary drought on nitrate fed and nitrogen fixing of alfalf. Plant Science, 107, 159-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(95)04108-7.
Araus, J.L., Slafer, M.P., Reynolds, B. & Royo, C. (2002). Plant breeding and water relations in C3 cereals: what should we breed for? Annals of Botany, 89, 925–940. DOI: doi: 10.1093/aob/mcf049
Arnon, A. N. (1967). Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Journal of Agronomy, 23, 112-121.
Azizinya, S. H., Ghannadha, M. R., Zali, A., Yazdi-Samadi, B. & Ahmadi, A. (2005). An Evaluation of Quantitative Traits Related to Drought Resistance in Synthetic Wheat Genotypes in Stress and Non-stress Conditions. Journal of Agronomy and crop science, 36, 281-293. (in Persian)
Bakhshandeh, A. (2004). Effects of water stress on the development of the inflorescence in two spring wheat. 11th Australian conference of agronomy, Rome, Italy. Pages 326.
Colom, M.R. & Vazzana, C. (2003). Photosynthesis and PSII functionality of drought-resistant and drought-sensitive weeping love grass plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 49, 135-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00065-5
Daneshmand, A. R., Shirani Rad, A. H. & Ardakani, M. R. (2006). Evaluation of water deficit stress on tolerance of spring rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1, 48-60. (in Persian)
Daniel, C. & Triboi, E. (2008). Changes in wheat protein aggregation during grain development: effects of temperature and water stress. Journal of Agronomy, 16, 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(01)00114-9
Dulai, S., Molnar, I., Pronay, J., Csernak, A., Tarnai, R. & Molnar-Lang, M. (2006). Effects of drought on photosynthetic parameters and heat stability of PSII in wheat and in Aegilops species originating from dry habitats. Acts Biologica Szegediensis, 50, 11-17.
Emam, Y. & Seghatoeslami, M. J. (2005). Cop Yield, Physiology and Processes. Shiraz University Press. Shiraz. (in Persian)
Emam, Y. (2011). Cereal Production. Shiraz University Press Fourth edition. 190 pages. (in Persian)
Emam, Y., Niknejad, M. (2011). An Introduction to the Physiology of Crop Yield, Shiraz University Press, Shiraz. (In Persian).
Emam, Y., .Ranjbar, A. M. & Bahrani. M., J. (2007). Evaluation of yield and yield components in wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1, 221-232.
Epstein, E., and Bloom, A. (2005). Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. 2nd ed. Sinecure Associates, Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates, Inc, 643-654.
Farrokhania, M. M., Rushdie B., Constable of Islam, R. & Susan Dost, R. (2011). Investigation of some physiological characteristics and spring safflower yield under water deficit stress. Journal of Crop Sciences, 42, 545-553. (in Persian)
Fathi, A. (2006). Evaluation of the effects of water stress on pollination stage and different nitrogen levels on yield and dry matter remobilization in wheat cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 267-277. (in Persian)
Flexas, J., Bota, J., Gales, J., Medrano, H. & Ribas-Carbo, M. (2008). Keeping a positive carbon balance under adverse conditions responses of photosynthesis and respiration to water stress. Physiologic Plantarum, 127, 343-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00621.x
Gautam, P.P., Vera Prasad, P.V., Fritz, A.K., Kirkham, M.B.K. & Gill, B. (2011). Response of Aegilops species to drought stress during reproductive stages of development. Functional Plant Biology, 39, 51-59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/FP11171.
Ghobadi, R. (2010). Investigating the effects of different levels of drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of Single Crop corn 704. Master's thesis (Agriculture), Borujerd University. 211 Pages. (in Persian)
Ghodsi, M. M., Chaichi, M., Jalal Kamali, R. & Mazaheri. D. (2004). Determine susceptibly of wheat growth stage to drought stress on grain yield and yield compounded. Seed and Plant Journal, 20(4), 25-34. (in Persian)
Ghosh, P.K., Ajay, K.K., Bandyopadhyay, M.C., Manna, K, G., Mandal, A.K. & Hati, K.M. (2004). Comprative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer NPK on three cropping system in vertisoils of semi-arid tropics. Dry matter yield, nodulation, chlorophyll content and enzyme activity. Bioresource Technol, 95, 85-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.02.012
Gong, H., Chin, K.Z., Wang, S. & Zhang, C. (2005). Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Journal of Plant Science, 169, 313-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.02.023
Haddad, R. & Moshiri, Z. (2010). Effect of silicon on increasing drought tolerance in barley stage. Genetic New, 5, 47-58. (in Persian)
Hameed, A., Goher, M. & Iqbal, N. (2013). Drought induced programmed cell death and associated changes in antioxidants, proteases, and lipid peroxidation in wheat leaves. Biologic Plant arum, 57, 370–374. DOI: 10.1007/s10535-012-0286-9
Jahanbinzin, S.h., Tahmasebi Sorvestani, Z., Madani S., AS, M. & Karim, Zadeh, G. (2003). Effect of dry stress on grain yield, some components of yield and resistance indices in barley genotypes. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 4, p. 3325. (in Persian)
Jamali, M.A. & Javid, M. A. (2003). Breeding of bread wheat for semi-dwarf character and high yield. Wheat Information Service, 96, 11-14
Lawler, D. W. (1995). The effect of water deficit on photosynthesis in Environment and Plant Metabolism. In: Smirnoff, N., (end), Bioss Scientific Publishers, Oxford, England, pp: 129-160.
Li, Q .F. Ma, C.C. & Shang, Q .L. (2007). Effects of silicon on photosynthesis and anti-oxidative enzymes of maize under drought stress. Ying Yong Shengtai Xue Bao, 18, 531 -536.
Liu, F., Andersen, M.N. & Jensen, C. R. (2004). Root signal controls pod growth in drought stressed soybean during the critical, abortion-sensitive phase of pod development. Field Crop Research, 85,159-166. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00164-3
Ma, J. F. &Yamaji, N. (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends Plant Science, 11, 1- 6.
Maghsoudi, K. & Emam, Y. (2016). Response of bread wheat cultivars to foliar application of silicon under post anthesis drought stress conditions. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 6, 1-13. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.jcpp.6.19.1
Mailer, P., Baltensperger, D., Clayton, G., Johnson, A., Lafond, G., Mc Conkey, B., Schatz, B. & Starica, J. (2002). Pulse crop adaptation and impact across the Northern Great Plains. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22, 261-272. (in Persian)
Manivaannan, P., Abdul Jaleel, C., Sanka, B., Kishorekumar, A., Somasundaram RLakshmanna, G.M.A. & Panneerselvam, R. (2007). Growth biochemical modification and proline metabolism in Helianthus annus L. as induced by drought stress. Colloids and Surfaced B. Biointerfaces, 59, 141-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.05.002
Mohammadi, S., Sepehri, A. S., Abutalebian, M. A. & Hamzai, J. (2012). Effect of silicon on wheat yield under drought stress conditions. Sixth National Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture, 11th and 12th March, 117-119.
Mussa, H. R. (2006). Influence of exogenous application of silicon on physiological response of salt stressed maize (Zea mayz L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 2, 293-297.
Nourmand, F., Rostami, M.A. & Ghannadha, M.R. (2001). A study of morpho-physiological traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), relationship with grain yield under normal and drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32, 785-794. (in Persian)
Prochazkova, D., Sairam, R. K., Srivastava, G. C. & Singh, D. V. (2001). Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity as the basis of senescence in maize leaves. Plant Science, 161, 765- 771. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00462-9
Rostami, M. & Kafi, M. (2009). The Effect of Drought Stress on Yield Components and Oil Content of Safflower Cultivars under Irrigation with Arboretum. Iranian Journal of Crop Research, 1, 132-121. (in Persian)
Saeedi, M., Moradi, F., Ahmadi, A., Sepehri, R., Najafian, G. & Shabani, A. (2011). Effect of seasonal drought stress on physiological characteristics and reservoir and source relationships in two bread wheat cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 12(4) :392-408
Sang, G.K., K.I.W.K., Eun, W.P. & Doil, C. (2002). silicon-induced cell wall fortification of rice leaves: a possible cellular mechanism of enhanced host resistance to blast. Phytopathology, 92, 1095-1103.
Shewry, P.R., 2009. Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 1537-1553.
Siddique, M. R., Hamid, B. A. & Islam, M.S. (2000). Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Botany Bulletin academic science, 41, 35-39. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.10.1095.
Solomon, S. (2007). Climate Change 2007- the Physical Science Basis: Working Group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC (Vol. 4). Cambridge University Press. London. UK.
Tale Ahmad, S. & Haddad, R. (2011). Study of silicon effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmotic adjustment of wheat under drought stress. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1, 17-27.DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/92/2010-CJGPB
Tas, S. & Tas, B. (2007). Some physiological responses of drought stress in wheat genotypes with different ploidity in turkey. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3, 178-183.
Wang, L. I., Fan, W., Loescher, W., Dunan, G., Liu, J., Cheng, H. & Luo, S. Li. (2010). Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves. BMC Plant Biological, 10, 34-48. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-34.
Zadokes, J. C., Chang, T. T. & Konzak, C. F. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research, 14, 415-421. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1974.tb01084.x