تأثیر سایه‎اندازی و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر رشد و مقدار اسانس گیاه دارویی نعناع فلفلی (Mentha piperita L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ابهر، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

نعناع فلفلی یکی از مهم‎ترین گیاهان دارویی و معطر دنیاست که مقدار اسانس آن از نقطه‎ای به نقطه دیگر در اثر کوددهی، سایه‎اندازی، آبیاری و دوره نوردهی تغییر می‎کند. به‎منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف سایه‎اندازی و نیتروژن بر رشد و عمکلرد اسانس این گیاه، آزمایشی به‎صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان در سال زراعی 94-1393 انجام شد. فاکتور سایه‎اندازی در چهار سطح (S0: بدون سایه‎اندازی، S25: 25 درصد ، S50: 50 درصد و S75: 75 درصد سایه‎اندازی) و فاکتور نیتروژن نیز در چهار سطح (N1: بدون نیتروژن، N2:60، N3:120 و N4: mg/kg 180 نیتروژن) فاکتورهای آزمایش را تشکیل می‎دادند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‎ترین تعداد برگ در بوته (936)، سطح برگ (mm2 1688)، شاخص کلروفیل (32/51)، میزان اسانس (455/2 درصد وزنی-وزنی) و عملکرد اسانس (g/box 37/0) در تیمار S25N3 دیده شدند. بیش‎ترین وزن خشک بخش هوایی در تیمار S50N4 به‎دست آمد که تیمار S25N3 با اختلاف 36/8 درصد در رتبه دوم قرار گرفت. بیش‎ترین وزن خشک برگ در تیمار S25N3 به‎میزان g/box 55/11 مشاهده گردید. تیمارهای اعمال شده بر ارتفاع گیاه و تعداد شاخه فرعی تأثیر معنی‎دار نداشتند. لذا جهت نیل به حداکثر درصد و عملکرد اسانس و هم‎چنین تعداد برگ در بوته و سطح برگ به‎منظور بازارپسندی جهت مصارف خوراکی نعناع فلفلی، استفاده از 25 درصد سایه‎اندازی به‎همراه کاربرد mg/kg120 نیتروژن توصیه می‎شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of shadow and different levels of nitrogen on growth and essential oil content of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Golchin 1
  • Faezeh Farahmand Mofrad 2
  • Nader Khadem Moghadam Igdelou 3
1 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
2 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Abhar Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
3 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Peppermint is an important medicinal and aromatic plant which its oil content varies from one region to another region and as a function of fertilization, shadow, irrigation, and photoperiod. In order to study the effect of different levels of shadow and nitrogen on growth and oil performance of this plant, a factorial experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan during the 2014-2015 cropping season. The experimental factors were, shadow factor in four levels (S0: without shadow, S25: 25%, S50: 50%, and S75: 75% shadow) and nitrogen factor as Urea in four levels (N1: without nitrogen, N2:60, N3:120, and N4:180 mg N/kg). The results showed that the highest number of leaves per plant (936), leaf surface area (1688mm2), chlorophyll index (51.32), essential oil content (2.455%), and essential oil yield (0.37 g/box) were obtained from the S25N3 treatment. The highest shoot dry weight was measured in the S50N4 treatment and the S25N3 treatment with 8.36% difference stood in the second place. The highest leaf dry weight was observed in S25N3 (11.55 g/box). Treatments applied to plant height and numbers of branches were not significantly affected. Therefore, to obtain the highest concentration and performance of essential oil in peppermint, as well as to increase the number of leaves per plant and leaf surface area for marketable and edible consumption, the use of 25% shadow and the application of 120 mg/kg nitrogen are recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • dry weight
  • Leaf area
  • Light
  • Urea
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