نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، بخش تحقیقات کشت گلخانه ای، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان تهران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ورامین، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی غلظت نیترات و فلزات سنگین در خاک و اندام خوراکی کاهو در مزارع دشت ورامین، پژوهش حاضر در سال زراعی 97-1396 انجام شد. برای انجام پژوهش، تعداد 30 مزرعه کاهو در دشت ورامین انتخاب شد. در فصل برداشت کاهو به مزارع فوق مراجعه و نمونه­برداری مرکب از خاک و محصول انجام شد و میانگین غلظت نیترات و فلزات سنگین در خاک و محصول با حدود استاندارد از طریق آزمون تی تک­نمونه­ای، مقایسه آماری شدند. میانگین غلظت نیترات، سرب و کادمیوم در کاهو به‌ترتیب 2756، 46/1 و 11/0 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم وزن تازه بود که به‌ترتیب، 8/1، 3/7 و 1/1 برابر استاندارد اعلام‌شده توسط سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران بود. میانگین غلظت نیترات و غلظت کل سرب، کادمیوم و نیکل در خاک مزارع کاهو به‌ترتیب 27، 42، 64/­0و 5/42 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم بود که غلظت نیترات و سرب به‌ترتیب 35 و 180 درصد بیش‌تر از حد مجاز بود. ارزیابی خطر ناشی از ورود عناصر سنگین به بدن و بیماری­های غیرسرطانی با فرمول­های ارائه‌شده توسط سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست آمریکا انجام شد. در این راستا از شاخص خطرپذیری به بیماری­های غیرسرطانی (HQ) استفاده شد. شاخص خطرپذیری به بیماری‌های غیرسرطانی برای کلیه آلاینده­ها، کم‌تر از یک بود که مؤید عدم خطر برای مصرف بود. شاخص تجمع زیستی برای تمام فلزات موردمطالعه، کم‌تر از یک بود. بیش‌ترین عامل تجمع زیستی متعلق به فلز سنگین کادمیوم بود که نشان‌دهنده تمایل کاهو به جذب و انباشت کادمیوم در مقایسه با سایر فلزات سنگین بود. براساس نتایج این پژوهش، احتمال مواجهه با بیمارى­هاى غیرسرطانى ناشى از نیترات و فلزات سنگین از مسیر خوردن کاهو به­طور جدى وجود ندارد، اما پایش غلظت نیترات و فلزات سنگین در خاک و کاهو در فواصل زمانى مختلف ضرورى است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Concentrations of Nitrates and Heavy Metals in the Soil and Lettuce and Risk Assessment of its Consumption

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Seilsepour

Assistant Professor, Greenhouse Cultivation Research Department, Tehran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Varamin, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This study is conducted to evaluate the concentration of nitrate and heavy metals in soil and edible organs of lettuce in Varamin plain farms for one year during 2017-2018. For this porouse, 30 lettuce fields in Varamin plain are selected and in the lettuce harvest season, soil and crop sampling are performed and the average concentrations of nitrate and heavy metals in the soil and lettuce were compared statistically with the standard limits by one paired t-test. The average concentrations of nitrate, lead and cadmium in lettuce are 2756, 1.46, and 0.11 mg­/­kg in fresh weight, respectively, which are 1.8, 7.3, and 1.1 times greater than the standard limit, declared by the National Standards Organization of Iran, respectively. The mean concentrations of nitrate and total concentrations of lead, cadmium, and nickel in the soil of lettuce fields are 27, 42, 0.64, and 42.5 mg­/kg, respectively, while the concentrations of nitrate and lead have been 35% and 180% higher than the allowable limits, respectively. Risk assessments for heavy metals and non-cancerous diseases are performed, using formulas provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2006). In this regard, the risk index for non-cancerous diseases (HQ) is used. The risk factor for non-cancerous diseases for all contaminants is less than one, indicating that there is no risk for consumption. Accordingly, consuming 40 grams of lettuce per day does not pose a problem for an adult consumer. The bioaccumulation index for all the studied metals has been less than one. According to this study, the highest bioaccumulation factor belongs to the heavy metal cadmium, which indicates the tendency of lettuce to absorb and accumulate cadmium compared to other heavy metals. In order to reduce the concentration of nitrate and lead in the soil and prevent contamination of lettuce soils, it is recommended to avoid excessive use of fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus and fertilizer application should be based on soil test. According to the results of this study, there is no serious possibility of exposure to non-cancerous diseases caused by nitrate and heavy metals from eating lettuce, but monitoring the concentration of nitrate and heavy metals in soil and lettuce at different intervals is necessary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio accumulation
  • cadmium
  • Lead
  • Nickel
  • Risk
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