نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران.

3 استادیار، بخش علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی، رشت، ایران.

4 4. دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران.

5 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران.

10.22059/jci.2022.324938.2561

چکیده

این آزمایش به­منظور بررسی عملکرد دانه بادام­زمینی در کشت مخلوط با ذرت تحت کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای فسفره شیمیایی و زیستی در طی سال­های زراعی 1396 و 1397 به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات رشت اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل پنج سطح کود فسفره (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع سوپرفسفات تریپل، 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرفسفات تریپل+ 200 گرم فسفات بارور2 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرفسفات تریپل+ 200 گرم  فسفات بارور2) و پنج الگوی کشت شامل کشت خالص ذرت، کشت خالص بادام‌زمینی و کشت مخلوط یک ردیف ذرت+ یک ردیف بادام‌زمینی (1:1)، دو ردیف ذرت+ یک ردیف بادام‌زمینی (1:2)، یک ردیف ذرت+ دو ردیف بادام‌زمینی (2:1) بود. براساس نتایج این آزمایش، اثر متقابل کود فسفره و سیستم کشت مخلوط بر تمام صفات اندازه­گیری‌شده معنی­دار بود. حداکثر عملکرد دانه ذرت و بادام­زمینی در سیستم تک­کشتی با کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم سوپرفسفات تریپل و 200 گرم فسفات بارور2 مشاهده شد. استفاده ترکیبی از فسفر شیمیایی و زیستی منجر به افزایش عملکرد دانه ذرت و بادام­زمینی در سیستم تک­کشتی شد. بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین (LER) معادل 8/1 در تیمار شاهد و کشت مخلوط ذرت و بادام­زمینی با نسبت ردیف 1:1 مشاهد شد. سیستم کشت مخلوط اجزای عملکرد بادام­زمینی از قبیل تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، طول و عرض غلاف را بهبود بخشید. براساس نتایج این آزمایش، سیستم کشت مخلوط ذرت- بادام‌زمینی از نظر تولید گیاهان زراعی در واحد سطح مزیت داشت. به‌علاوه، غلظت نیتروژن و فسفر در دانه بادام‌زمینی در واکنش به کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای فسفره شیمیایی و زیستی تحت شرایط کشت مخلوط ذرت و بادام‌زمینی افزایش پیدا کرد. کشت مخلوط ذرت و بادام­زمینی با نسبت ردیف 1:1 و کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم سوپرفسفات تریپل و 200 گرم فسفات بارور2 بر تیمارهای دیگر برتری نشان داد. بدین ترتیب، کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 می­تواند برای افزایش سودمندی و تولید محصول در کشت مخلوط ذرت و بادام­زمینی تحت شرایط اقلیمی منطقه قابل توصیه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of Integrated Application of Phosphorus Fertilizers on Grain Yield of Groundnut under Intercropping with Corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tahererh Rezapour Kavishahi 1
  • Saeed Saifzadeh 2
  • Marefat Mostafavi Rad 3
  • alireza valadabadi 4
  • Esmaeil Hadidi Masouleh 5

1 Ph. D. Student, Agronomy Department, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.

5 Assistant Professor, Agronomy Department, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate of grain yield of groundnut under intercropping with corn under the application of phosphorus chemical and bio-fertilizers, this experiment is performed as factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Rasht, Iran in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Five level of phosphorus fertilizer (PF) as triple super phosphate (TSP) including 1. Zero (as control), 2. 50 kg/ha TSP, 3. 100 kg/ha TSP, 4. 50 kg/ha TSP + 200 g/ha Barvar2 phosphate bio-fertilizer (BPB), and 5. 100 kg/ha TSP + 200 g/ha BPB, and five intercropping pattern (IP) including 1. maize sole cropping, 2. groundnut sole cropping, 3. intercropped groundnut-maize with the ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 rows, comprise the experimental treatments. According to the results from this experiment, the interaction effect between phosphorus fertilizer × intercropping system has been significant for all measured characteristics. Maximum grain yield of maize and groundnut are observed in the application of 100 kg/ha phosphorus fertilizer plus 200 g Barvar2 phosphat bio-fertilizer under sole crop. The combined usage of chemical and biological phosphorus fertilizer increase grain yield of maize and groundnut under sole crop. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER) equal 1.88 can be seen under control treatment and maize-groundnut intercropped system with the ratio of 1:1 rows. Intercropping system improve yield attributes of groundnut such as pod numbers per plant and grain number per pod, pod length, and diameter. Based on the results of this experiment, maize-groundnut intercropped system are advantageous for crop production per unit area. In addition, the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus content in groundnut grain rise in response to the integrated application of chemical phosphorus and Barvar2 phosphat bio-fertilizer under maize-groundnut intercropped system. Maize-groundnut intercropped system with the ratio of 1:1 rows and the application of 100 kg/ha phosphorus fertilizer plus 200 g Barvar2 phosphat bio-fertilizer are superior to other treatments. Hence, Barvar2 phosphat bio-fertilizer superiority could be recommendable to enhance profitability and crop production at maize-groundnut intercropping system under region climatic condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barvar2
  • Biofertilizer
  • planting pattern
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Triple super phosphate
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