نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.

چکیده

هدف آزمایش بررسی و ارزیابی تأثیر پوتریسین و 24- اپی‌براسینولید در تغییر فعالیت آنزیم­های ضداکسنده جهت تحمل به تنش خشکی در گیاه ریحان بود. طرح به­صورت اسپلیت‌پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌های زراعی 97- 1396 و 98-1397 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تیمار آبی در سه سطح (40، 80 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) در کرت‌های اصلی، محلول‌پاشی پوتریسین در سه سطح (صفر (شاهد)، 5/0 و 2 میلی‌مولار) و 24-­اپی‌براسینولید در سه سطح (صفر (شاهد)، 5/0 و 2 میکرو­مولار) به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‌های فرعی اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین میزان پرولین در تیمارآبی 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر در سال اول آزمایش حاصل شد و کاربرد پوتریسین (دو میلی‌مولار) و 24-اپی‌براسینولید (5/0 میکرومولار) نیز سبب افزایش بیش‌تر میزان پرولین گیاه ریحان شد. در تیمار120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و کاربرد دو میلی‌مولار پوتریسین بیش‌ترین میزان آنزیم کاتالاز مشاهده شد. برهم‌کنش اثرات تنش خشکی، پوتریسین و 24-اپی براسینولید نیز نشان داد که بیش‌ترین میزان آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید­ دیسموتاز در تیمار 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و بالاترین غلظت پوتریسین (دو میلی‌مولار) و 24- اپی‌براسینولید (دو میکرومولار) مشاهده شد. در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب (40 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر)، کاربرد هم‌زمان غلظت­های کم‌تر پوتریسین (5/0 میلی‌مولار) و اپی براسینولید (5/0 میکرومولار) و در شرایط تنش خشکی (80 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر)، غلظت بیش‌تر این دو ماده (دو میلی‌مولار پوتریسین و دو میکرومولار اپی‌براسینولید) باعث افزایش آنزیم گایاکول پراکسیداز شد. برهم‌کنش چندگانه سال، تنش خشکی، پوترسین و 24- اپی‌براسینولید تأثیر معنی‌داری بر فلاونوِئید کل و درصد اسانس ریحان گذاشت به‌نحوی که در هر دو سال آزمایش، کاربرد غلظت 2 میلی‌مولار پوترسین و 2 میکرومولار 24-اپی‌براسینولید در همه سطوح آبی به‌ویژه 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر، سبب افزایش بیش‌تر این دو صفت شد و در سال اول آزمایش این افزایش بیش‌تر از سال دوم بود. کاربرد هم‌زمان دو میلی‌مولار پوترسین و دو میکرومولار اپی‌براسینولید به­دلیل افزایش سنتز پرولین و آنزیم­های آنتی‌اکسیدانی بهترین تیمار در جهت کاهش  اثرات تنش خشکی  در گیاه ریحان بود، که نشان­دهنده وجود رابطه هم­افزایی بین این دو ماده در بهبود رشد گیاه ریحان و افزایش درصد اسانس این گیاه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Putrescine and 24-Epibrasinolide on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Basil to under Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • fereshteh darabi 1
  • Nosratollah Abbasi 2
  • Mohammad Javad Zarea 3

1 Ph.D. in Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This paper aims at evaluating the effects of putrescine and 24-epibrasinolide on altering the activity of antioxidant enzymes to tolerate drought stress in basil. The plan has been implemented as factorial split plot layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in the cropping years 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University. Experimental treatments include drought stress at three levels (40, 80, and 120 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan) as the main plots, putrescine foliar application at three levels (0, 0.5, and 2 (mM) and 24- Epibrassinolid foliar application at three levels (0, 0.5, and 2 μM) as subplots. Results show that the highest amount of proline in 120 mm occurs during the first year of the experiment and the use of putricin (2 mM) and 24-epibrasinolide (0.5 μM) also cause a further increase in proline. The highest amount of catalase has been observed in the 120 mm evaporation treatment and the application of 2 mM putrescine. The interaction of drought stress, putrescine, and 24-epiprasinolide also show that the highest levels of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase belong to the treatment of 120 mM where the highest concentrations of putrescine (2 mM) and 24-epibrasinolide (2 μM) is observed. Under optimal irrigation conditions (40 mm), the combined application of lower concentrations of putrescine (0.5 mM) and epibrasinolide (0.5 μM) and under drought stress conditions (80 and 120 mm), higher concentrations of these two substances (2 mM putrescine and 2 μM epibrasinolide) increase the enzyme guaiacol peroxidase. Multiple interactions of year, drought stress, putrescine, and 24-epibrasinolide have had a significant effect on total flavonoids and essential oil percentage of basil. In both experimental years, application of 2 mM putrescine and 2 μM 24-epibrasinolide at all levels of drought stress 120 mm cause a further increase in these two traits which has been greater in the first year than the second one. Concomitant use of 2 mM putrescine and 2 μM epibracinolide due to increased proline synthesis and antioxidant enzymes is the best treatment to reduce the effects of drought stress in basil, indicating a synergistic relation between the two. The substance boosts the growth of basil, increasing the percentage of its essence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Catalase
  • Essential oil
  • proline
  • Putrescine
  • Basil
Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3
Ameri, R.,  Azizi, M.,  Tehranifar, A.,&   Roshan Sarvestani, V. (2015). Effect of Natural Antitranspirant Compounds on Physiological and Biological Properties of Basil (Ocimum basilicum) under Water Stress Condition. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 29(1), 55-67. (In Persian).
Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, Rome, 300, 6541.
Alcazar, R., Cuevas, J., Patron, C., Altabella, M., & Tiburcio, A. F. (2010). Abscisic acid modulates polyamine metabolism under water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Physiology, 128, 448-455.
Anjum, S.A., Wang, L.C., Farooq, M., Hussain, M., Xue, L.L., & Zou, C.M. (2011). Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 197, 177-185.
Afsharmohammdian, M., Ghanati, F., Ahmadiani, S., & Sadrzamani, K. (2016). Effect of drought stress on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and soluble sugars content of Pe-nnyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.). Nova Biologica Reperta, 3 (3), 228-237. https:// 10.21859/acadpub.nbr.3.3.228. (In Persian).
 Anwar, A., Yumei. L., Rongrong, D., Longqiang, B., Xianchang, Y., & Yansu, L. (2018). The physiological and molecular mechanism of brassinosteroid in response to stress: a review Biological Research, 51(46), 1-15. https:// 10.1186/s40659-018-0195-2
Arasteh, F., Moghaddam, M., & Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A. (2020). The effect of putrescine foliar application ontheinduction of drought resistance in Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.). Journal of Cell and Tissue, 11(3), 204-220. https://10.52547/JCT.11.3.204. (In Persian).
Aria, P. (1997). Description of methods of physical decomposition of soil. Tehran Soil and Water Research Institute Publications. 65.
Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P., & Tear, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39, 205-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060 
Bajguz, A., & Hayat, S. (2009). Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 47(1), 1-8. http://10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.10.002
Bettaieb, I., Zakhama, N., Aidi Wannes, W., Kchouk, M.E., & Marzouk, B. (2011).Water deficit effects on Salvia officinalis fatty acids and essential oils composition. Scientia Horticulturae, 120, 271-275. http://10.1016/j.scienta.2008.10.016
Bucks, D.A., Nakayama, F.S., & Warrick, A.W. (1982). Principles, Practices, and Potentialities of trickle drip irrigation. In: Hillel, D. (Ed.). Advances in Irrigation Agronomy Assets Cambridge, 1, 219-298. http://10.1016/B978-0-12-024301-3.50013-7
Casano, L.M., Martin, M., & Sabater, B. (1994). Sensitivity of superoxide dismutase transcript levels and activities to oxidative stress is lower in mature-senescent than in young barley leaves. Plant Physiology, 106. http://1033-1039. 10.1104/pp.106.3.1033.
Change, B., & Maehly, A.C. (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology, 2, 764-775. http:// 10.1016/S0076-6879(55)02300-8
Chaparzadeh, N., Amico, M.L., Nejad, R.K., Izzo, R., & Izzo F.N.  (2004). Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 42, 695-701. http:// 10.1016/j.plaphy.2004.07.001
Chegini, E., Ghorbanpour, M., Hatami, M., & Taghizadeh, M. (2017). Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Physiological Traits, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand. under Drought Stress. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 16 (62), 191-207. (In Persian).
Dandan, Ch., Qingsong, Sh., Lianghong, Y., Adnan, Y., & Bingsong, Zh. (2019). Polyamine Function in Plants: Metabolism, Regulation on Development, and Roles in Abiotic Stress Responses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9(1945),1-13. http:// 10.3389/fpls.2018.01945
Dastborhan, S., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Nasrollahzadeh, S., & Tavassoli, A.R. (2011). Effect of biofertilizers and different amounts of nitrogen on yield of flower and essential oil and nitrogen use efficiency of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(2), 290-305. (In Persian).
Dhindsa, R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa, L.A., & Thorpe, T.A. (1981). Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxidedismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany, 32(1), 93-101. https:// 10.1093/jxb/32.1.93
Dhriti, K., Bhardwaj, S., Landi, M., Sharma, A., Ramakrishnan, M., & Sharma, A. (2020). The Impact of Drought in Plant Metabolism: How to Exploit Tolerance Mechanisms to Increase Crop Production, Applied Sciences, 10, 5692, 2-19. https:// 10.3390/app10165692
Ekren, S., Sonmez, ch., Ozcakal, E., Kukul Kurttas, Y., Bayram, E., & Gurgulu, H. (2012). The effect of different irrigation water levels on yield and quality characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Agricultural Water Management, 109, 155-161. https://10.1016/j.agwat.2012.03.004
Esmaielpour, B.,  Fatemi, H., & Moradi, M. (2019). Effects of nitric oxide on some morphophysiological and biochemical properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under drought stress conditions. Iranian journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4(35), 601-616. (In Persian).
El-Lethy, S., Ayad, H., & Talaat, I. (2010). Physiological effect of some antioxidant on flax plant (Linumusit atissimum L.), World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(5), 622-629,.
Fariduddin, Q., Khanam, S., Hasan, S. A., Ali, B., Hayat, S., & Ahmad, A. (2009). Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on drought stress induced changes in photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Brassica juncea L. Acta Physiology Plant, 31, 889-897.
Flores, H.E., Protacio, C.M., & Signs, M. (1989). Primary and secondary metabolism of polyamines in plants. Plant Nitrogen Metabolism, 329-393.
Farhoudi, R. (2017). Evaluation of Drought Stress Effect on Growth, Essential Oil Percentage and Essential Oil Yield of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. Presov cultivar) and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. local cultivar) in the North of Khuzestan. Journal of Horticultural Science, 31(1), 122-130. https:// 10.22067/jhorts4.v0i0.46691. (In Persian).
Galston, A. W. (1991). On the trail of a new regulatory system in plants. New Biology, 3, 450-453.
Gao, F.Y., Jiac, C.G., Lia, Z., Sun, B., Zhanga, L.P., Liu, N., & Wang, Q.M. (2010). Effect of brassinosteroids on drought resistance and abscisic acid concentration in tomato under water stress, Scientia Horticulturae, 126, 103-10.
Gerami, M., Mohammadian, A., & Akbarpour, V. (2019). The Effect of Putrescine and Salicylic Acid on Physiological Characteristics and Antioxidant in Stevia Rebaudiana Under Salinity Stress. Journal of Cell Biology, 11 (29), 40-54.  https:// 10.29252/jcb.11.29.40. (In Persian).
 Hassanpour, K., Ahmadi, J., Daneshyan J., & Hatami S. (2015). Changes in chlorophyll, protein and antioxidant enzymes on durum wheat under drought stress. Journal of Crop Breeding, 7(15), 76-87. (In Persian).
Hemmati, KH.,  Ebadi, A., Khomari, S., & Sedghi, M. (2018). Influence of ascorbic acid and 24 epibrassinolide on physiological characteristics of pot marigold under water-stress condition. Journal of Plant Interactions, 13(1), 364-372. (In Persian). https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2018.1483033
Iakovos, K., Menexes, G., Georgiou, P., & Dordas, Ch. (2020). Effect of Water Stress on the Physiological Characteristics of Five Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Cultivars.agronomy, 10(7), 1029.1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10071029
 Kabiri, R.,  Farahbakhsh, H., & Nasibi,  F. (2014).Effect of drought stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30(4), 66,600-610. https://10.22092/ijmapr.2014.9841.(In Persian).
Kashefi, B., & Bahri, F. (2019). The effect of drought stress and hexaconazole on physio-morphological characteristics of Malva sylvestris L., Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 12(3), 877-887. https://10.22077/escs.2019.1591.1360
Khair-ul-Bariyah, S., Ahmed, D., & Ikram, M. (2012). Ocimum basilicum: a review on phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 2(2), 78-85. https://10.15228/2012.v02.i02.p05
 Khalifelouiy, Z.,  Abbasifar, A.R.,  Khadivi, A., & Akramian M. (2020). EThe effect of proline and 24-epibrassinolide on growth indices and biochemical characteristics of the summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Journal of Plant Research, 32(4), 873-885. (In Persian).
Mahajan, S., & Tuteja, N. (2005). Cold, salinity and drought stress: an overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 15, 444(2), 139-58. https:// 10.1016/j.abb.2005.10.018
 Mazarie, A., Mousavi-nik, S.M., Ghanbari, A., &  Fahmideh L. (2019). Effects of spraying jasmonic acid on some morpho-physiological traits, antioxidant enzymes activity and essential oil yield of Salvia officinalis L. under drought stress. Iranian journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 35(1), 80-97. (In Persian).
Momeni Monfared, M., Mahmoodi Sourestani, M., Zolfaghari, M., & Malekzadeh, M. (2018). Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of essential oil of some Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions in Ahvaz weather conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 34(2), 286-297. https://10.22092/ijmapr.2018.115708.2155
 Nazarli, H., Ahmadi, A., & Hadian, J. (2015). Putrescine induces drought tolerance and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing chamomile plants (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 2(46), 227-235. (In Persian).
Nobahar, A., Mostafavi Rad, M., & Ghazi Pirkouhi, M. (2014). Effects of planting pattern and plant density on Quantitative and qualitative yield in two basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) medicinal plants. Journal of Crop Production, 7(1), 63-77. (In Persian).
 Oveysi Omran, M., Zavareh, M., Sefidkon, F.,  Abaszadeh, B., Asadi-Sanam, S. (2020). Effects of potassium and brassinosteroid on some morphophysiological characteristics and essential oil yield of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench under different regimens of water availability. Iranian journal of medicinal and aromatic plants, 36(1), 40-58.(In Persian).
Parvin,S., Lee, O.R., Sathiyaraj, G., Khorolragchaa, A., Kim, Y.J., & Yang, D.C. (2014). Spermidine alleviates the growth of saline-stressed ginseng seedlings through antioxidative defense system. Iranian Journal of HorticulturalScience, 537(1), 70-80. https://10.1016/j.gene.2013.12.021
Rahaty, R., Hakimi, L., & Zare, F. (2015). Effect of polyamines on morphological characteristics, quanlity and quantity essential oil of moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3(5), 49-58.
Ranieri, A., Castagna, A., Pacini, J., Baldan, B., Sodi, A.M., & Soldatini, G.F. (2003). Early production and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in the apoplast of sunflower plants exposed to ozone. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54(392), 2529-2540. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erg270
Rezaei Chiyaneh, E., Zehtab Salmasi,  S., Ghassemi Golezani, K., & Delazar, A. (2012). Physiological responses of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) to water limitation. Journal of Agroecology, 4(4), 347-355. (In Persian).
Rezaei, H., Saeidi-Sar, S., Ebadi, M., & Abbaspour, H. (2018). The effect of spraying of methyl jasmonate and 24-epi-brassinolide on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf stomatal traits in black mustard (Brassica nigra L.) under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 7 (25), 53-62. (In Persian).
Siosemardeh, A., Fateh, H., & Badakhshan, h. (2014). Responses of Photosynthesis, Cell Membrane Stability and Antioxidative Enzymes to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Fertilizer in Two Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars under Controlled Condition. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 12(2), 34, 215-228. (In Persian).
Soltanian, B.,  Rezvani Moghaddam, P., & Asili, J. (2020). Effects of water deficit stress and fertilizer sources on morphological characteristics and phenolic compounds in medicinal plant purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1(36),130-141. (In Persian).
Saffari, M., Oveysi, M., & Zarghami, R. (2016). Effect of putrescine polyamine on some traits of the herb thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) under water deficit stress. Agronomic Reaserch In Semi Desert Regions, 12 (4), 279-289. (In Persian).
Saglam, A., Saruhan, N., Terzi, R., & Kadioglu, A. (2011). The relations between antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in common bean cultivars differing in sensitivity to drought stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 58(1), 60-68. https://10.1134/s102144371101016x
Simova-Stoilova, L., Demirevska, K., Petrova, T., Tsenov, N., & Feller, U. (2008). Antioxidative protection in wheat varieties under severe recoverable drought at seedling stage. Plant Soil Environment, 54, 529-536. https://17221/427-PSE
Trevor, M., Nemanja, N., Vukašinović, D. L.,  Russinova, E., & Yanhai, Y. (2020). Brassinosteroids: Multidimensional Regulators of Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Responses Plant Cell, 32(2), 295-318. https://10.1105/tpc.19.00335
Yong, T., Zongsuo, L., Hongbo, S., & Feng, D. (2006). Effect of water deficits on the activity of antioxidative enzymes and osmoregulation among three different genotypes of Radix astragali at seedling stage. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 49, 60-65. https://10.1016/j.colsurfb.2006.02.014
Yiu, J., Juang, L.D., Fang, D., Liu, W., & Wu, J. (2009). Exogenous putrescine reduces floodinginduced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant properties of Welsh onion. Scientia Horticulturae, 120, 306-14. https://10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.020
Zali, H., Hasanloo, T., Sofalian, O., Asghari, A., & Zeinalabedini, M. (2016). Drought Stress Effect on Physiological Parameter and Amino Acids Accumulations in Canola. Journal of Crop Breeding, 8(18), 191. (In Persian).
Zhang, K.M., Yu, H.J., Shi, K., Zhou, Y.H., Yu, J.Q., & Xia, X.J. (2010). Photoprotective roles of anthocyanins in Begonia semperflorens. Plant Science, 179(3), 202-208.
Zhang, R.H., Li, J., Guo, S.R., & Tezuka, T. (2009). Effects of exogenous putrescine on gas-exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of NaCl-stressed cucumber seedlings. Photosynthesis Research, 100, 155-162. https://10.1007/s11120-009-9441-3