نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر رژیم­های آبیاری و محلول­پاشی سیلیکون بر ویژگی‌های کمی و فیزیولوژیک گاوزبان، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت­پلات و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 93-1392 در پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل (زهک) اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل رژیم­های آبیاری در سه سطح (90، 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی مزرعه) به­عنوان عامل اصلی و چهار سطح محلول­پاشی سیلیکون به­فرم سیلیکات­سدیم (Na2SiO3) (­صفر، 2، 4 و 6 میلی­مولار) به­عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیش‌ترین میزان پرولین از اثر متقابل رژیم­ آبیاری 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی بدون کاربرد سیلیکون به­میزان 7847/0 میلی­­گرم بر وزن­تر به­دست آمد. براساس نتایج مقایسه میانگین، بیش‌ترین میزان کلروفیل a (919/15 میلی­گرم در گرم برگ)، کلروفیل b (14/7 میلی­گرم در گرم برگ)، از اثر متقابل رژیم آبیاری 70 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و کاربرد 2 میلی­مولار سیلیکون، هم‌چنین تعداد گل در بوته، عملکرد خشک کل بوته (520 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (1187 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، به­ترتیب از اثر متقابل رژیم آبیاری 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و کاربرد 6 میلی­­مولار سیلیکون به­دست آمد. به­طورکلی، سیلیکون اثرات رژیم­های­ آبیاری را کاهش و سبب افزایش مقاومت گاوزبان در برابر کم­آبی می­شود. بنابراین استفاده از تیمار 4 میلی­مولار سیلیکون جهت دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد گل تحت شرایط کم­آبی مناسب به­نظر می­رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Silicon on Quantitative and Physiological Characteristics of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) under Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad reza Kimiaei 1
  • Alireza Sirousmehr 2
  • Barat ALI Fakheri 3

1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of irrigation regimes and foliar silicon spraying on quantitative and physiological characteristics of borage (Borago officinalis), an experiment is conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2014 at the University of Zabol research farm in Zahak. Treatments include irrigation regimes at three levels; (90%, 70%, and 50% FC) comprising the main-treatments and four levels of silicon sprying including spraying in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) (0, 2, 4, and 6 mM) as sub-treatments. The results indicate that the highest amount of proline is obtained from the interaction of irrigation regime with 50% of field capacity, without the use of silicon at the rate of 0.7847 mg.g-1. Based on the results of average comparison, the highest amount of chlorophyll a (15.919 mg/g fresh weight), chlorophyll b (7.14 mg/g fresh weight), from the interaction of irrigation regime 70% of field capacity and application of 2 mM silicon, as well as number of flowers per plant, total dry yield of plant (520 kg.ha-1) and biological yield (1187 520 kg.ha-1) Per hectare), 70% and 50% of field capacity and application of 6 mM silicon are obtained from the interaction effect of irrigation regime, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that silicon application mitigate drought stress impact and led to increasing drought tolerance of borage. Since flower and flowering branches of plant has economic value and application of 4 mM silicon acid is recommended to obtain the greatest flower yield under drought stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • proline
  • yield
Abbasian, A., & Aminpanah, H. (2021). Effect of foliar application of phytoprotectants on yield of rice (Oryza sativa Cv. Shiroudi) under drought stress. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 11(1), 69-81. (In Persian).
Ahmadi, Sh., Nazarideljou, M. J., & Hasani, A. (2020). Morphophysiological characteristics, quantity and quality of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) essential oil under the influence of silicic acid in soilless cultivation. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 36(5), 734-747. (In Persian).
Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M. R. (2007). Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59(2), 206-216.
Askarnejad, M., Sodaeeizadeh, H., Mosleh Arani, A., & Yazdani Biouki, R. (2019a). Effect of silicon on some characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 20(1), 21-30. (In Persian).
Askarnejad, M., Sodaeeizadeh, H., Mosleh Arani, A., Yazdani Biouki, R., & Mavandi, P. (2019b). Effect of silicon in improving drought tolerance of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) under moisture stress. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 12(3), 847-863. (In Persian).
Babaee, K., Amini Dehaghi, M., Modares Sanavi, S. A. M., & Jabbari, R. (2010). Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(2), 239-251. (In Persian).
Bagheri, N., Enteshari, Sh., & Razavizadeh, R. (2020). Effect of silicon on some of morphological. physiological parameters and the expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and proline 5-carboxylate synthase genes in Iranian Borago medicinal plant under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 12(1), 85-106. (In Persian).
Barati, V., & Bijanzadeh, E. (2021). Grain yield and its components of triticale as affected by silicon foliar application, nitrogen fertilizer and water stress in reproductive phase. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 18(4), 435-449. (In Persian).
Barati, M., Sirous Mehr, A., Khatami, S. S., Mousavi, S. R., & Najafi, F. (2016). Effects of foliar application of nano-silicon on some physiological parameters and yield of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) under water deficiency stress. Journal of Applied Research of Plant Ecophysiology, 3(1), 105-118. (In Persian).
Bates, L. S., Waldern, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1), 205-‌207.
Danaee, E., & Abdossi, V. (2021). Effects of silicon and nano-silicon on some morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 37(1), 98-112. (In Persian).
Davazdah Emami, S., & Majnon Hosseni, N. (2008). Farming and the production of some herbs and medicines. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran. 300p. (In Persian).
Esmaielpour, B., Shiekhalipour, M., & Torabi Giglo, M. (2020). Effects of zinc nanoparticles on growth, some physiological characteristics, and essential oil yield of Dracocephalum moldavica L. under salinity stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 36(5), 867-884. (In Persian).
Etesami, H., & Jeong, B. R. (2018). Silicon (Si): review and future prospects on the action mechanisms in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 147, 881-896.
Fani, E., & Hajihashemi, Sh. (2020). Effect of foliar application of silica on some physiological traits of (Physorrhynchus Chamaerapistrumare L.) medicinal plant. Bi-Quarterly Journal of Plant Production, 10(1), 92-101. (In Persian).
 Farokhinia, M., Roshdi, M., Pasban Eslam, B., & Sasandoost, R. (2011). Study of some physiological traits and yield in spring safflower under water deficit stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 42(3), 545-553. (In Persian).
Gong, H., Zhu, X., Chen, K., Wang, S., & Zhang, Ch. (2005). Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Science, 169(2), 313-321.
Gottardi, S., Iacuzzo, F., Tomasi, N., Cortella, G., Manzocco, L., Pinton, R., Romheld, V., Mimmo, T., Scampicchio, M., Dalla Costa, L., & Cesco, S. (2012). Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 56: 14-23.
Hamidi Moghaddam, R., Sirousmehr, A. R., & Ghanbari, A. (2021). Effect of sodium selenate, titanium dioxide and organic growth regulator on some physiological traits, yield and percentage oil of safflower under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 12(4), 1-18. (In Persian).
Hecl, J., & Sustrikova, A. (2006). Determination of heavy metals in chamomile flower drug-an assurance of quality control. Program and Absrtact book of the 1st International Symposium on Chamomile Research, Development and Production, presov University, 7-10 Jun: 69pp.
Heidari, M., & Minaei, A. (2014). Effects of drought stress and humic acid application on quantative yield and content of macro-elements in medical plant borage (Borago officinalis L.). Journal of Plant Production Research, 21(1), 167-182. (In Persian).
Irigoyen, J. J., Einerich, D. W., & Sanchez Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Physiologia Planttarum, 84(1), 55-60.
Jalilzadeh, E., Jabbarzadeh, Z., & Norouzi, P. (2018). Effect of foliar spray of different sources and concentrations of silicon on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Rose cv. Beverly Watson. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 9(3), 65-78. (In Persian).
 Jiang, Y., & Huang, B. (2001). Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41(2), 436-442.
Kafi, M., Borzouei, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A., & Nabati, J. (2012). Physiology of environmental stress in plants. Mashhad, University Jihad Publications of Mashhad University, 504p. (In Persian).
Khaghani, S., Azarnivand, H., Jafari, M., Mollafilabi, A., & Tavili, A. (2020). Evaluation of different levels of zeolite and salicylic acid on some growth indices of medicinal plant (Thymus Daenensis) under drought stress conditions. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, 73(1), 49-63. (In Persian).
Khodabandeloo, Sh., Sepehri, A., Ahmadvand, G., & Keshtkar, A. H. (2014). The effect of silicon application on grain yield of millet and water use efficiency under drought stress. Journal of Crops Improvement, 16(2), 399-416. (In Persian).
Koyro, H. W. (2006). Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and solute composition of potential cash crop halophyte plantago coronopus (L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56(2), 136-146.
Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Babani, F. (2000). Detection of photosynthetic activity and water stress by imaging the red chlorophyll fluorescence. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 38(11), 889-895.
Ma, J. F., & Takahashi, E. (2002). Soil, fertilizer, and plant silicon research in japan. Elsevier Science, Amesterdam, 294p.
Maleki Farahani, S., & Abdolahi, M. (2014). Effect of deficit irrigation on yield and yield components of two different species of balangu (Lallemantia royleana & iberica) from mashhad and urmia. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 12(3), 502-515. (In Persian).
Malmir, R., Motesharezadeh, B., Tabrizi, L., & Bekhradi, F. (2020). Effect of silicon sources and nano silicon on some morphophysiologic response of stevia rebaudiana bertoni. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 51(20, 281-295. (In Persian).
Mehraban Joubani, P., Barzegar, A., Barzegar Golchini, B., Ramezani Sayyad, A., & Abdolzadeh, A. (2019). Comparison of effects of iron excess and application of silicon on fluorescence of chlorophyll in shoot and developmental changes in root of rice seedlings. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 11(3), 17-32. (In Persian).
Mirzaei, M. M., Ghorbani, S., Rozbahani, A., & Ghaderi, A. (2019). The effect of drought stress, chimical fertilizer and biofertilizer on yield and essence content of borage (Borago officinalis L.). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 11(36), 67-77. (In Persian).
Mohammadi Azni, M., Moradi, H., Ghasemi, K., & Biparva, P. (2020). Effect of silicon and methyl jasmonate on some morphological traits and photosynthetic parameters in common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Journal of Horticultural Plants Nutrition, 3(1), 175-186. (In Persian).
Nayyar, H., & Gupta, D. (2006). Differential sensitivity of c3 and c4 plants to water deficit stress: Association with oxidative stress and antioxidants. Environmental and Experimental Botani, 58, 106-113.
Percival, G. C., & Sheriffs, C. N. (2002). Identification of drought-tolerant woody perennials usingchlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Arboriculture, 28(5), 215-223
Ranganna, S. (1977). Manual for analysis of fruit and vegetable products. New Delhi: Tata Mc-Graw Hill Co, 73-76pp.
Rezabeigi, S., & Bijanzadeh, E. (2020a). Response of biochemical traits and relative water content of two bread and durum wheat cultivars to silicon spraying under water stress conditions. Journal of Crops Improvement, 22(1), 73-87. (In Persian).
Rezabeigi, S., Bijanzadeh, E., & Behpouri, A. (2020b). Effect of silicone spraying on assimilate remobilization and yield of two bread and durum wheat under late season water stress. Journal of Plant Production Research, 27(3), 55-71. (In Persian).
Saedi, F., Sirousmehr, A. R., & Javadi, T. (2020). Effect of nano-potassium fertilizer on some morpho-physiological characters of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under drought stress. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 33(1), 35-45. (In Persian).
Sato, F., Yoshioka, H., Fujiwara, T., Higashio, H., Uragami, A., & Tokuda, S. (2004). Physiological responses of cabbage plug seedlings to water stress during low-temperature storage in darkness. Scientia Horticulturae, 101(4), 349-357.
Setayeshmehr, Z., & Ganjali, A. (2014). Effects drought stress on growth and physiological characteristics of dill. Journal of Horticultural Science, 27‌(1), 27-35. (In Persian).
Shams, H., Abdolzadeh, A., Sadeghipour, H. R., Mehraban Joubani, P., & Bagherieh Najar, M. B. (2019). Effects of silicon nutrition on the alleviation of salinity induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 32(1), 133-143. (In Persian).
Shamsai, A. A., Aran, M., & Fakheri, B. A. (2021). The effect of foliar application of selenium on physiological and biochemical characteristics of rosemary under drought stress. Journal of Crop Science Research in Arid Regions, 2(2), 127-140. (In Persian).
Showemimo, F. A., & Olarewaju, J. D. (2007). Drought tolerance indices in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1, 29-33.
Slama, I., Ghnaya, T., Hessini, K., Messedi, D., Savoure, A., & Abdelly, C. (2007). Comparative study of the effects of mannitol and peg osmotic stress on growth and solute accumulation in Sesuvium portulacastrum. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 61(1), 10-17.
Taheri, F. (2014). Effect of foliar application of chitosan on quantitative and qualitative characteristics on ajowan drought stress conditions. M.Sc., Thesis, Field of Medicinal Plants, Zabol University. (In Persian).
Torabi, F., Majd, A., Enteshari, Sh., & Ayriyan, S. (2013). Study of effect of silicon on some anatomical and physiological characteristics of borage (Borago officinalis L.) in hydroponic conditions. Journal of Cell & Tissue, 4(3), 275-285. (In Persian).
Verma, S., & Dubey, R. S. (2001). Effect of cadmium on soluble sugars and enzymes of their metabolism in rice. Biologia Plantarum, 44(1), 117-123.
Yan, G. C., Nikolic, M., Ye, M. J., Xiao, Z. X., & Liang, Y. C. (2018). Silicon acquisition and accumulation in plant and its significance for agriculture. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(10), 2138-2150.
Yin, L., Wang, S., Li, J., Tanaka, K., & Oka, M. (2013). Application of silicon improves salt tolerance through ameliorating osmotic and ionic stresses in the seedling of Sorghum bicolor. Acta Physiology Plant, 35, 3099-3107.
Zahedchekovary, S., & Gasemov, N. (2015). Study of some microelements, proline and protein of Brago officilalis L. under drught stress. Journal of Crop Biotechnology, 11(4), 65-75. (In Persian).
Zare, F., Khorasaninejad, S., & Hemmati, KH. (2018). The effect of silicon on some morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 10(3), 55-68. (In Persian).
Zargari, A. (2006). Medicinal Plants. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran. 951p. (In Persian).