نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

چکیده

گیاه کاسنی به‌دلیل خاصیت خوشخوراکی و قابلیت هضم بالای خود، نقش مؤثری در افزایش تولیدات دام‌های اهلی دارد. به‌منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و سطوح کود نیتروژن بر برخی صفات کاسنی (Cichorium intybus L.) آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 96-1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان انجام شد. فاکتورهای موردبررسی شامل چهار تاریخ کاشت (اول آبان، 15 آبان، اول آذر و 15 آذر) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و چهار سطح نیتروژن (صفر (عدم کاربرد)، 75، 150، 225 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت تنها شاخص سبزینگی، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و انرژی قابل هضم را تحت تأثیر قرار داد، اما نیتروژن بر تمام صفات موردبررسی اثر معنی‌داری داشت. افزایش کاربرد نیتروژن تا 225 کیلوگرم در هکتار باعث شد که گیاه از نظر ارتفاع بوته، شاخص سبزینگی، سطح برگ، تعداد شاخه فرعی وزن تر و خشک شرایط بهتری را ایجاد نماید. به‌طوری‌که تیمار 225 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن نسبت به عدم کاربرد، وزن تر اندام هوایی و درصد پروتئین علوفه را به‌ترتیب 35/66 و 44/6 درصد افزایش داد. اما در این دو صفت در تاریخ‌های کاشت مختلف بین سطوح کاربرد نیتروژن اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد. در این پژوهش تاریخ کاشت‌های دیرهنگام منجر به بهبود اکثر صفات فیزیولوژیکی، مرفولوژیکی، عملکردی وکیفی گیاه شد. بر همین اساس می‌توان تاریخ کاشت اوایل تا اواسط آذرماه با میزان کود شیمیایی 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار را بهترین تیمار جهت کشت کاسنی در منطقه اهواز معرفی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Sowing Data and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Yield and Quality of Chicory Forage in Ahwaz Climate Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahereh Hashemian 1
  • Alireza Abdali Mashhadi 2
  • Amin Lotfi jalal-abadi 3
  • Ahmad Kochekzadeh 2

1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Thanks to its palatability and high digestibility, chicory plays an effective role in increasing domestic animals’ products. In order to study the effect of sowing data and nitrogen fertilizer levels on some characteristics of chichory (Cichorium intybus L.), an experiment has been conducted in a split plot design, using randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan in 2016-2017. The factors include four sowing data (22 October, 5 November, 21 November, and 5 December) as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen (zero (non-application), 75, 150, and 225 kg / ha) as subplots. Results show that the sowing dates have only affected chlorophyll meter index, dry matter digestibility, and digestible energy, whereas nitrogen has had a significant effect on all studied traits. Increasing the application of nitrogen to 225 kg / ha increases plant height, chlorophyll meter index, leaf area, and branch number, not to mention both fresh and dry weights of the plant. The treatment of 225 kg / ha nitrogen raises the fresh weight of shoots and the percentage of forage protein by 66.35% and 6.44%, respectively, compared to non-application. But in these two traits, no significant difference has been observed among nitrogen application levels in different planting dates.  In this study, late planting date led to better conditions for most physiological, morphological yield, and quality characteristics. Accordingly, it is turned out that October 22 till November 5 sowing date with 150 kg ha-1 fertilizer has been the best treatment for chicory cultivation in Ahvaz.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Digestible energy
  • dry matter digestibility
  • leaf area index
  • shoot dry weight
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