نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه علوم گیاهی و گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی مشگین‌شهر، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، واحد پارس‌آباد مغان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، پارس‌آباد مغان، ایران.

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر مطالعه تسهیم ماده خشک به اندام­های هوایی در زمان گرده‌افشانی، دو هفته بعد از گرده‌افشانی و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک در ارقام مختلف گندم و ارتباط احتمالی آن با عملکرد دانه بود. تعداد 18 رقم گندم آبی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مغان طی سال زراعی 94-1393 موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. در زمان گرده‌افشانی، مقدار تجمع ماده خشک در کل گیاه از 95/1 گرم در رقم سومای3 تا 33/3 گرم در رقم الوند متغیر بود. در این زمان ارقام مختلف نسبت­های مختلفی از ماده خشک را به ساقه (از 31 تا 41 درصد)، برگ (از 37 تا 50 درصد) و سنبله (از 16 تا 27 درصد) اختصاص دادند. در فاصله گرده‌افشانی تا دو هفته بعد از آن، وزن خشک ساقه و سنبله در همه ارقام افزایش اما وزن برگ عموماً ثابت ماند. بیش‌ترین افزایش در وزن ساقه و سنبله مربوط به شیرودی (52/1 گرم) و کم‌ترین آن مربوط به سرداری (52/0 گرم) بود. در فاصله دو هفته بعد از گرده‌افشانی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، سنبله مخزن غالب بود، اما اما تفاوت ارقام از نظر صدور مواد فتوسنتزی به سنبله و استفاده از ذخایر ساقه (انتقال دوباره) باعث تغییر دوباره الگوی تسهیم مواد فتوسنتزی در بین ارقام گندم شد. ارتباط مشخصی بین ارتفاع ارقام و وزن سنبله در زمان گرده‌افشانی مشاهده نشد، اما اما ارقام با ارتفاع کوتاه عموماً در رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک دارای وزن و درصد سنبله بالا بودند. این نتایج نشان می‌دهد الگوی تسهیم مواد فتوسنتزی بسته به مرحله نموی گیاه و رقم مورداستفاده تغییر می­یابد. بنابراین الگوی تسهیم مواد فتوسنتزی یک رقم در طی یک مرحله نموی ضرورتاً نمی­تواند در مرحله نموی دیگر نیز دیده شود. در پایان فصل رشد، ارقام کراس البرز و پیشتاز، از نظر تسهیم ماده خشک و عملکرد دانه برتر بودند. تجزیه همبستگی نشان داد وزن برگ­ها در زمان گرده‌افشانی، وزن ساقه در دو هفته بعد از گرده‌افشانی و مقدار تسهیم مواد فتوسنتزی به دانه‌ها، ارتباط مثبت و معنی­داری با عملکرد دانه داشتند. بنابراین، صفات ذکر شده می­توانند در برنامه­های مرتبط با افزایش عملکرد گندم، موردتوجه پژوهش‌گران قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Dry Matter Partitioning to Vegetative and Reproductive Organs in Wheat Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Joudi 1
  • shahram mehri 2

1 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Science and Medicinal Herbs, Meshgin Shahr Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, ParsAbad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, ParsAbad Moghan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The aim of this research is to study the pattern of dry matter partitioning to different above-ground plant parts during anthesis, two weeks after anthesis, and physiologic maturity among wheat cultivars and to investigate its possible relationship with grain yield. Eighteen well-watered wheat cultivars have been grown at research farm of Moghan College of Agriculture and Natural Resources based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2014-2015 growing season. At anthesis, total dry matter accumulated in the plant, range from 1.95 (Sumay3) to 3.33 g (Alvand). At this time, depending on the cultivar, dry matter partitioned to the stem which differ from 31% to 41%, vary from 37% to 50% in the leaves, and from 16% to 27% in the spike. From anthesis to two weeks post-anthesis, dry weight of stem and spike increase, while those of leaves, generally, remain constant. The highest (1.52 g) and the lowest (0.52 g) increases in the weight of stem and spike have been observed in the case of Shirodi and Sardari, respectively. During two post-anthesis weeks to physiologic maturity, the spike has been dominant; however, the cultivar differences in the amount of allocated photoassimilates to the spike as well as stem reserves remobilization change the pattern of dry matter partitioning among wheat population again. At anthesis, there has been no clear association between cultivar height and spike weight. At physiologic maturity, however, dwarf cultivar generally has had higher weight and proportion of the spike. These results show that the pattern of dry matter partitioning is varied depending on the plant developmental stages and cultivars. Therefore, partitioning pattern of a cultivar observed at one growth stage is not necessarily similar in other growth stages. At physiologic maturity, Crossed Alborz and Pishtaz are superior with respect to dry matter partitioning and yield performance. Analysis of correlation reveals that leaves dry weight at anthesis, stem dry weight at two weeks after anthesis, and partitioned photoassimiltes to the grain are correlated positively with square grain yield. Therefore, these traits deserve further attentions in wheat programs dealing with increased grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Developmental Stages
  • Grain yield
  • Partitioning
  • remobilization
  • Wheat
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