نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران‏.

4 مربی، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سیستم‎های مختلف خاک‌ورزی در شرایط کم‎آبیاری به‌همراه کاربرد کود اوره و ورمی‎کمپوست بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی کلزا و برآورد مقدار آبشویی نیترات از خاک شنی، آزمایشی به‎صورت کرت‎های دوبار خردشده در قالب بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و در دو سال زراعی 1398-1396 در مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل ها و مراتع واقع در استان البرز انجام گرفت. از لحاظ عملکرد دانه و روغن بین سیستم شخم حداقل و شخم معمول تفاوت معنی‎داری وجود نداشت، از طرف دیگر در سیستم بدون شخم عملکرد روغن به‌میزان  22 درصد نسبت به شخم حداقل و 5/21 درصد نسبت به شخم معمول کاهش یافت. کاربرد تلفیقی کود ورمی‎کمپوست و اوره در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب، منجر به افزایش عملکرد روغن (24 درصد نسبت به شاهد) گیاه کلزا شد. در هر سه نظام شخمی بیش‌ترین میزان آبشویی نیتروژن در شرایط کاربرد کود اوره به‌دست آمد، به‌طوری‎که در مقایسه با کاربرد ورمی‎کمپوست و تیمار تلفیقی کود به‌ترتیب 67 و 50 درصد در سیستم بدون شخم، 50 و 36 درصد در شخم حداقل و 49 و 34 درصد در سیستم بدون شخم بیش‌تر بود. تنش کم‎آبی باعث کاهش 6/7 درصدی لینولئیک‌اسید شد. بیش‌ترین میزان اولئیک‌اسید (9/63 درصد) و لینولئیک‌اسید (7/20 درصد) به‎ترتیب در تیمار خاک‌ورزی حداقل× کود تلفیقی و خاک‌ورزی حداکثر× کود اوره مشاهده شد. از نتایج به‌دست‌آمده می‌توان نتیجه گرفت شخم حداقل و جایگزینی کود اوره با ورمی‎کمپوست با کاهش هدررفت نیتروژن و هم‌چنین تعدیل شرایط تنش ناشی از خشکی منجر به افزایش در عملکرد دانه و روغن کلزا می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Tillage, Irrigation, and Fertility Management on Nitrate Leaching and Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) ‎Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in a Sandy Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghorban Khodabin 1
  • Mojdeh Sadat Khayat Moghadam 2
  • Shahryar kazemi 3
  • mahsa rafati alashti 4

1 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Preceptor, Department of Agriculture science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This study investigates the effects of different tillage systems (no-tillage, minimum and conventional), fertilizers (no fertilizer, vermicompost (V), urea (U) and combined urea and vermicompost (VU) and irrigation regimes on various quantitative and qualitative traits of rapeseed, as well as soil nitrate leaching (NL). Field trials have been conducted between 2017 and 2019 in the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands with no significant difference observed for seed and oil yield between the minimum and conventional till systems. However, the no-till system vs. minimum and conventional till decrease these traits by 22% and 21.5%. The combined application of vermicompost and urea under optimal irrigation conditions boosts oil yield by 24%, compared to the control) of rapeseed. Furthermore, across all tillage types, the highest NL is observed where urea was applied. When compared with urea, V and UV treatments decrease the NL by 67% and 50% in no-till plots, 50% and 36% in minimum till plots, and 49% and 34% in conventional till plots, respectively. Deficit irrigation also reduces linoleic acid by 7.6%. In addition, the highest levels of oleic acid (63.9%) and linoleic acid (20.7%) are observed under residual tillage system with combined fertilizer application and the residual tillage system with vermicompost application, respectively The findings indicate that minimum till in combination with VU treatments supports reduced NL over conventional till and urea fertilization practices, while improving rapeseed quantitative and qualitative traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Fatty acid
  • Seed yield
  • tillage
  • Urea
  • vermicompost
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