نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

4 استاد، موسسه تحقیقات جنگل ها و مراتع کشور، تخصص: اصلاح گیاهان علوفه ای، تکنولوژی بذر، کیفیت علوفه، ژنتیک بیومتری

5 استادیار، گروه فارماکوگنوزی و داروسازی، پژوهشکده گیاهان دارویی جهاد دانشگاهی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

برخی گیاهان دارویی نقش مهمی در تولید علوفه با کیفیت دارند و ضمن کاهش هزینه­های تولید به حفاظت محیط زیست و منابع آب و خاک نیز کمک می‌کنند. از طرفی کشت مخلوط و کاربرد کودهای آلی و زیستی یا تلفیق مناسب این دو با کودهای شیمیایی می­تواند به‌عنوان یک راه‌کار در افزایش عملکرد گیاهان در کشاورزی پایدار موردتوجه قرار گیرد. به همین منظور جهت بررسی اثر منابع مختلف کود و نسبت­های مختلف کشت مخلوط جایگزینی کاسنی و یونجه یک‌ساله اسکوتالاتا، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 99-1398 در مزرعه آزمایشی واقع در شهرستان بهبهان به‌اجرا در آمد. فاکتور اول نوع نهاده تغذیه­ای (شیمیایی، آلی و تلفیقی) شامل سه سطح کود شیمیایی (اوره+ سوپرفسفات تریپل)، کود ورمی‌کمپوست و کود تلفیقی (کود زیستی نیتروکسین+ فسفات بارور2+ 50 درصد کود شیمیایی) بود و فاکتور دوم  نسبت­های مختلف کشت در پنج سطح شامل کشت خالص کاسنی (SC)، کشت خالص یونجه (SM)، یک ردیف کاسنی: یک ردیف یونجه (C1M1)، یک ردیف کاسنی: دو ردیف یونجه (C1M2) و دو ردیف کاسنی: یک ردیف یونجه (C2M1) بودند. صفات موردمطالعه شامل عملکرد علوفه کاسنی و یونجه و ویژگی‌های کیفی علوفه شامل درصد و عملکرد پروتئین خام، درصد خاکستر، فیبر خام،  قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و محتوای عناصر کلسیم و فسفر علوفه بود. نتایج نشان داد که بالاترین عملکرد علوفه خشک  کاسنی و یونجه (به‌ترتیب 04/4 و 63/4 تن در هکتار) در تیمار تک‌کشتی و منبع کود شیمیایی حاصل شد. نسبت­های کشت مخلوط  و کاربرد کودهای تلفیقی و ورمی‌کمپوست موجب بهبود پروتئین خام و خاکستر یونجه و بهبود فیبر خام علوفه کاسنی بدون کاهش در سایر صفات کیفی شدند. ارزیابی نسبت برابری زمین نشان‌دهنده برتری تمام نسبت­های کشت مخلوط نسبت به تک‌کشتی این گیاهان بود. درنهایت تیمارهای کشت مخلوط C1M1 و C2M1  با نسبت برابری زمین 3/1 و مجموع عملکرد 44/5 و 95/4 تن در هکتار و  کاربرد کود تلفیقی به‌عنوان تیمارهای برتر شناخته شدند.    

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Replacement Ratios of Chicory Mixed Cultivation with Annual Medic at Different Nutrient Levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrnoosh Garshasbi 1
  • Mohammad Rafieiolhossaini 2
  • Sina Fallah 3
  • Ali Ashraf Jafari 4
  • Shamsali Rezazadeh 5

1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

4 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacy, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Some medicinal plants have an important role in production of fodder with high quality. While reducing the production costs, they protect the environment, water, and soil resources. On the other hand, mixed cultivation and application of organic and biological fertilizers or proper combination of these two with chemical fertilizers can be considered a solution to increase crop yield in sustainable agriculture. For this purpose, in order to investigate the effects of different treatments of fertilizer and ratios of mixed cultivation of Chicory and annual Medic, a factorial experiment has been conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental field located in Behbahan city in 2019-2020 growing season. The first factor has been different fertilizer sources (Chemical, Organic, and Integrated) in three levels: chemical fertilizer, vermicompost fertilizer and combined fertilizer (nitroxin biofertilizer + fertile phosphate 2 + 50% chemical fertilizer) and the second factor has been five intercropping patterns including: sole chicory (SC), sole annual medic (SM), one row of chicory: one row of annual medic (C1M1), one row of chicory: two rows of annual medic (C1M2) and two rows of chicory: one row of annual medic (C2M1). The studied traits are forage yield of chicory and annual medic and quality characteristics of forage including percentage and yield of crude protein, percentage of ash, crude fiber, dry matter digestibility, calcium, and phosphorus content of forage. The results show that the highest dry forage yields of chicory and medic (4.04 and 4.63 t/ ha, respectively) are obtained in monoculture and chemical fertilizer treatment. Mixed cultivation ratios and application of combined fertilizers and vermicompost improve crude protein and ash of medic and crude fiber of chicory forage without reducing any other quality traits. Evaluation of land equivalent ratio show the superiority of all mixed ratios over monoculture of these plants. Finally, mixed cultivation treatments C1M1 and C2M1 with a land equivalent ratio of 1.3 and a total yield of 5.44 and 4.95 tons per hectare and the application of combined fertilizer are recognized as superior treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fertilizer
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • Forage
  • Protein
  • Sole cultivation
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