نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی، مجتمع باغات میوه شرکت کشت و صنعت و دامپروری مغان، مغان، ایران.

2 دانشیار،گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

3 استادیار پژوهشی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، مغان، ایران.

4 دانش‌آموخته دکتری، سازمان جهاد کشاورزی استان اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر کم‌آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) رقم مروارید، آزمایشی به­صورت طرح کرت­های خردشده بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار با سه تیمار اصلی شامل روش آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری سطحی (TS)، آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری زیرسطحی (TSS) و آبیاری فارو (F) و سه تیمار فرعی شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری به­صورت کم‌آبیاری با 50 (I1)، کم‌آبیاری با 75 (I2) و آبیاری کامل با 100 (I3) درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در سال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی استان اردبیل در منطقه مغان انجام گرفت. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل آماری نشان داد که بیش‌ترین وزن هزاردانه، شاخص برداشت و تعداد پنجه در واحد سطح به‌ترتیب با 05/0 کیلوگرم، 42 درصد و 56/448 در I3 و میزان پروتئین با 56/9 درصد در I1 به‌دست آمد. هم‌چنین بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه و بهره‌وری آب به‌ترتیب با 33/7122 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 81/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب مربوط به‌روش آبیاری TS با سطح آبیاری I3 (در بهره‌وری آب، تیمارI3  با I1 اختلاف معنی­داری نداشت) بود و کم‌ترین آن‌ها با 67/2866 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 05/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب در روش آبیاری F به‌ترتیب در سطوح آبیاری I1 و I3 به‌دست آمد. بنابر­این روش آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری سطحی (TS) با تیمارهای سطح کم‌آبیاری 75 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (I2) و آبیاری کامل 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه(I3)  به‌ترتیب در شرایط محدودیت آب و عدم محدودیت آب می‌توانند گزینه مناسبی برای تولید محصول گندم در منطقه مغان باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Irrigation Method on Water Productivity, Yield, and Yield Components of Wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nikrooz Shirinzadeh 1
  • Mohammad Hassan Biglouei 2
  • Karamat Akhavan 3
  • Adel Mohammadi 4

1 Expert of Irrigation and Drainage, The Complex of Fruit orchards of Cultivated Company and Industry and Animal Husbandry, Moghan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran.

3 Research Assistant Professor of Research Center of Agricultural Training and Natural Resources, Moghan-Ardabil, Iran.

4 Former Ph.D. Student, Agricultural Jihad Organization, Ardebil, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of wheat (Triticum asetivum L.) Morvareed cultivar, an experiment has been carried out with three main treatments including surface drip irrigation (TS), subsurface drip irrigation (TSS), and Furrow irrigation (F), as well as three submain treatments containing irrigation levels 50% (I1), 75% (I2), and 100% (I3) of the plant water requirement. It has taken place in the research farm of Ardebil Agricultural Research and Training Center in Moghan region during 2016-2017. The experiment is conducted as split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results show that the highest 1000-grain weight, harvest index and number of tillers per unit area are obtained with 0.05 kg, 42% and 448.56 in I3 and protein content with 9.56% in I1, respectively. Also, the highest grain yield (7122.33 kg ha-1) is obtained from the TS with irrigation level of I3 (no significant difference between I3 and I1). Meanwhile, the highest water productivity based on grain yield with 1.81 kg m-3 is obtained from the treatment of F with I1. The lowest grain yield with 2866.67 kg ha-1 and water productivity based on grain yield with 1.05 kg m-3 belongs to F with irrigation levels of I1 and I3, respectively. Therefore, the surface drip (TS) with 75% (I2) and 100% (I3) of crop water requirement in conditions of water deficiency and no-water-deficiency, respectively, can be considered as optimum methods for wheat production in the Moghan region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • Furrow Irrigation
  • Grain yield
  • harvest index
  • Protein
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