نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.

3 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران.

4 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر فاصله ردیف و مقدار مصرف نیتروژن بر رشد و عملکرد کینوا، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1397 در سبزوار انجام شد. عوامل موردمطالعه شامل فاصله ردیف کاشت در سه سطح 25، 50 و 75 سانتی‌متر و مقدار مصرف نیتروژن در چهار سطح صفر، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین محتوای رنگدانه­های فتوسنتزی، طول پانیکول، تعداد دانه در بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیک در تیمار 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به‌دست آمد. تیمار 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار بالاترین تعداد پانیکول در بوته (24/19 عدد) و وزن هزاردانه (51/3 گرم) را دارا بود. افزایش فاصله ردیف باعث افزایش محتوای کلروفیل، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پانیکول، طول پانیکول و تعداد دانه در بوته شد، اما وزن هزاردانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را کاهش داد. کاهش عملکرد دانه با افزایش فاصله ردیف به 50 و 75 سانتی­متر، به‌ترتیب برابر با 62/18 و 14/50 درصد بود. بالاترین عملکرد دانه (5/6644 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط مصرف 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و در فاصله ردیف 25 سانتی­متر مشاهده شد. با افزایش فاصله ردیف، نیاز نیتروژنی برای تولید حداکثر عملکرد دانه کاهش یافت، به‌طوری‌که بالاترین عملکرد دانه در فاصله ردیف­های 75، 50 و 25 سانتی­متر به‌ترتیب با مصرف 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار تولید شد. با توجه به نتایج، مصرف 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و فاصله ردیف 25 سانتی­متر برای کاشت ژنوتیپ ساجاما، قابل‌توصیه می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Row Spacing and Nitrogen Application Rate on Yield and Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Quinoa

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Ebrahimikia 1
  • Matin Jami Moeini 2
  • Hamid Marvi 2
  • Yousef Hasheminejhad 3
  • Mohammad Ghasemzadeh Ganjehie 4

1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Research, National Salinity Research Center (NSRC), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran.

چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of row spacing and nitrogen application rate on growth and yield of quinoa, a split plot experiment has been conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Sabzevar during 2018. The studied factors include row spacing at three levels (25, 50, and 75 cm) and nitrogen application rate at four levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha-1). Results show that the highest content of photosynthetic pigments, panicle length, number of seeds per plant, and biological yield belong to 150 kg N ha-1 treatment. However, the 100 kg N ha-1 treatment has had the highest number of panicles per plant (19.24) and 1000-seed weight (3.51 g). More row spacing has resulted in more chlorophyll contents, plant height, number of panicles, panicle length, and number of seeds per plant, but less 1000-seed weight, seed yield, and biological yield. The decrease in seed yield by increasing the row spacing to 50 and 75 cm has been 18.62 and 50.14%, respectively. The highest seed yield (6644.5 kg ha-1) has been produced via application of 150 kg N ha-1 at a row spacing of 25 cm. With increasing row spacing, nitrogen requirement to produce maximum seed yield declines. Thus, the highest seed yield in 75, 50, and 25 cm rows spacing are produced with the application of 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha-1, respectively. According to the results, the application of 150 kg N ha-1 and row spacing of 25 cm is recommended for planting quinoa, Sajama genotype.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll index
  • panicle length
  • Plant density
  • Quinoa
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