نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

چکیده

با هدف دستیابی به بالاترین سطح عملکرد و سودمندی در کشت مخلوط افزایشی آفتابگردان و ریحان تحت مدیریت آبیاری با آب شور و شیرین، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و طی دو سال زراعی (1396 و 1397) در پژوهشکده دانشگاه زابل اجرا شد. آب شیرین (ECe= 3.9 dS.m-1) از رودخانه هیرمند و آب شور (ECe= 1.1 dS.m-1) از چاه تأمین شدند. رژیم آبیاری به­عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح آب شیرین، آب شور و متناوب (شور و شیرین یک­در میان) و سطوح مختلف کشت به‌عنوان عامل فرعی شامل 100­ درصد آفتابگردان (چهار بوته در مترمربع)، 100­ درصد ریحان (80 بوته در مترمربع)، 100­ درصد آفتابگردان+ 50 درصد ریحان، 50 درصد آفتابگردان+ 100 درصد ریحان، 100­ درصد آفتابگردان و 100­ درصد ریحان انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد اثر متقابل تیمارهای الگوی کشت مخلوط و رژیم آبیاری بر وزن هزاردانه، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد روغن دانه آفتابگردان، و هم‌چنین صفات عملکرد وزن خشک و اسانس گیاه ریحان اثر معنی­دار داشت. هم‌چنین در رژیم­های آبیاری مختلف، بیش‌ترین نسبت برابری زمین کل (45/1- 37/1) و شاخص سودآوری (48/0-29/0) در الگوی کشت 50 درصد آفتابگردان+ 100 درصد ریحان دیده شد. نتایج نشان داد کشت مخلوط می‌تواند بر تعدیل تأثیر منفی شوری آب بر عملکرد گیاهان مورد آزمایش مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Additive Intercropping Series of Sunflower with Basil, under Saline and Fresh Water Irrigation Regimes on their ‎Yield and Advantage Indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • sara Najafi 1
  • Issa Khammari 2
  • ahmmad ghanbari 3
  • mahdi dahmard 4

1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Additive intercropping series of sunflower and basil have been laid out under salty and fresh water irrigation management with the aim of achieving the highest yield and intercropping advantage as a result of intercropping the two plants. An experiment has been performed at Zabol University during two cropping years (2018 and 2019). Fresh water (ECe = 3.9 dS.m-1) and saline water (ECe = 1.1 dS.m-1) have been taken from the Hirmand River and a local well, respectively. The irrigation water regimes are fresh water, salt water, and an alternating usage of salty and fresh irrigation water. In addition, five types of intercropping patterns are considered the sub-factors (100% sunflower (4 plants/m2), 100% basil (80 plants/m2), 100% sunflower+ 50% basil, 50% sunflower + 100% basil and 100% sunflower + 100% basil. The results show that the interaction between intercropping patterns and different irrigation regimes has had a significant effect on 1000 seed weight, seed yield, harvest index, oil yield of sunflower, dry weight, and essential oil yield of basil plants. In response to all irrigation regimes, the highest value of total land equivalent ratio (1.37-1.45) and intercropping advantage (0.29 - 0.48) has occurred as a result of cultivating 50% sunflower + 100% basil, thereby appearing as a good model of intercropping. The results show that intercropping patterns can be effective in modulating the negative effects of saline irrigation water on plant yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural pattern
  • Alternating irrigation
  • Essential oil
  • harvest index
  • Stress
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