ارزیابی کارایی باکتری‎های محرک رشد گیاه در کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی فسفر در گندم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 دانش‎آموخته دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش پتانسیل جدایه‏های فراریشه‏ای و درون‏رست جداشده از ریشه گیاه گندم به‌منظور بررسی خصوصیات محرک رشد و اثر آن‌ها بر عملکرد گندم و کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی فسفر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ابتدا باکتری‎ها از نظر تولید هورمون ایندول استیک اسید در محیط کشت حاوی ال-تریپتوفان غربال‎گری شدند و سپس توانایی آن‏ها در انحلال فسفات‌های نامحلول معدنی و آلی ارزیابی شد. در ادامه مطالعات آزمایشگاهی، آزمایش مزرعه‌ای به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار در طی دو سال‎ زراعی 1396-1395 و 1397-1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تیمار کود زیستی وشیمیایی فسفر بود که تیمار کود زیستی در دو سطح (زادمایه باکتری به‌همراه شاهد) و کود شیمیایی به‌عنوان فاکتور دوم از منبع سوپر فسفات تریپل در پنج سطح (1- عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی فسفر، 2- 25 درصد توصیه کودی فسفر، 3- 50 درصد توصیه کودی فسفر، 4- 75 درصد توصیه کودی فسفر، و 5- 100 درصد توصیه کودی فسفر) در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش شاخص‎های رشد و عملکرد گیاه گندم در نتیجه مایه‌کوبی بذور گندم با سویه‎های محرک رشد گیاه به‌علاوه 75 درصد از کود فسفر از نظر آماری برابر با تیمار 100 درصد کود فسفر و بدون زادمایه باکتری بود. کاربرد زادمایه باکتری‏های محرک رشد (تلفیقی از جدایه فراریشه‎ای و درون‎رست) با 75 درصد کود شیمیایی توانست به میزان 4/747 گرم بر مترمربع تولید را داشته باشد. براساس این نتایج، پیشنهاد می‏شود که زادمایه می‎تواند به‌عنوان مکمل با کودهای شیمیایی به‌منظور کاهش سطح مصرف کودهای شیمیایی استفاده شود اما نمی‎تواند جایگزینی برای کود فسفر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria in reducing phosphate fertilizer application in wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Ali Alikhani 1
  • somayeh emami 2
  • Fatemeh Alikhani 3
1 Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 M.Sc. Student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study investigates the potential of rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial isolates isolated from the roots of wheat plant in terms of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits and their effect on the wheat yield and decreased phosphorus (P) fertilizer use. To this end, the isolated bacteria have been first screened for the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of tryptophan in the culture medium, and then the bacteria have been tested for their ability to dissolve inorganic and organic phosphates. In further laboratory studies, a factorial experiment has been conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications over two-year field study (2017 and 2018). Experimental treatments include biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizer, the former with two levels (with and without bacterial inoculation) and latter (as the second factor) from triple super phosphate source with five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the full recommended fertilizer rate). Results from this experiment prove that supplementing 75% of the recommended P-fertilizer rate with bacterial isolates (co-inoculation with rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria) increases wheat growth indices and yield (747.40 g m-2), which are statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without them. Based on these results, it is suggested that biofertilizer can be used as a fertilizer supplement to reduce the level of fertilizer use but cannot be a substitute for phosphorus fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phosphate solubilization
  • plant yield
  • rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria
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