نقش برگ پاشی نانوکودها در تعدیل اثرات منفی تنش شوری در کینوا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه علمی علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف بررسی تعدیل اثرات منفی تنش شوری با برگ­پاشی کودهای نانو، به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1397 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه به‌صورت گلدانی اجرا شد. فاکتور اول تنش شوری با آب دریاچه ارومیه در سه سطح (صفر، 16 و 32 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و فاکتور دوم نانوکود در پنج سطح (کلسیم، سیلیسیوم، روی، پتاسیم و شاهد (بدون برگ­پاشی) بود. نتایج نشان داد تنش شوری باعث ایجاد آثار منفی بر کلیه صفات مؤثر بر رشد کینوا شد بیش‌ترین میزان کاهش صفات در تنش شوری 32 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر مشاهده شد. به‌طوری‌که تنش شوری 32 و 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر در مقایسه با شاهد به‌ترتیب صفات ارتفاع بوته (20 و 17 درصد)، تعداد گل‌آذین (48 و 36)، حجم ریشه (44 و 40 درصد)، طول ریشه اصلی (41 و 23 درصد)، وزن خشک ریشه (68 و 30 درصد)، محتوای نسبی آب برگ (26 و 13 درصد)، شاخص کلروفیل (15 و 7 درصد) و وزن 1000 دانه (31 و 23 درصد) را کاهش داد، ولی باعث افزایش نشت یونی به میزان 14 و شش درصد شد. برگ­پاشی با نانوکودها در مقایسه با شاهد، عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و صفات مورفولوژیک را افزایش داد. بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط مطلوب و تنش شوری شدید (32 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) به‌ترتیب از برگ­پاشی نانوکود روی و سیلیسیوم به­دست آمد. در شرایط تنش شوری شدید، برگ­پاشی با نانوکود سیلیسیوم در مقایسه با عدم برگ‌پاشی، وزن خشک گل‌آذین، وزن خشک کل و عملکرد دانه را به‌ترتیب 35، 16 و 43 درصد افزایش داد و باعث تعدیل اثرات تنش شوری گردید. برگ­پاشی با نانوکودها با افزایش کلروفیل، محتوای نسبی آب برگ و بهبود خصوصیات ریشه، سبب افزایش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه کینوا گردید. لذا به‌نظر می­رسد جهت بهبود عملکرد گیاه کینوا به­ویژه در شرایط تنش شوری، برگ­پاشی نانوکودها به­ویژه نانو کود سیلیسیوم مناسب باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The roll of foliar application nano-fertilizers in modulating the negative effects of salt stress in quinoa

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faezeh Heidari 1
  • Jalal Jalilian 2
  • esmaeil gholinezhad 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application different nano-fertilizers on modulating negativeeffectsof salt stress on quinoa, in factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in the research farm of Urmia University in the pot during 2018. The first factor was salinity of irrigation water using (Lake Urmia water at three levels: 0, 16 and 32 dS/m and the second factor was nano-fertilizers at five levels: calcium, silicon, zinc, potassium and control (no foliar application). The results showed that salinity stress caused negative effects on all traits affecting quinoa growth. The highest decrease in traits was observed in salinity stress of 32 dS/m. Salinity stress of 32 and 16 dS/m compared to control decreased plant height (20 and 17%), inflorescence number (48 and 36%), root volume (44 and 40%), main root length (41 and 23%), root dry weight (68 and 30%), relative leaf water content (26 and 13%), chlorophyll index (15 and 7%) and 1000-seed weight (31 and 23%), respectively; but increased ionic leakage by 14 and 6%, respectively. Foliar application with nano-fertilizer compared to control increased the yield, yield components and morphological traits. The highest seed yield was obtained under optimum conditions and severe salinity stress (32 dS/m) by foliar application with nano-fertilizer of zinc and silicon, respectively. Under severe salinity stress, foliar application with nano-fertilizer of silicon compared to non-foliar application increased the dry weight of inflorescences, total dry weight and seed yield by 35%, 16% and 43%, respectively, and moderated the effects of salinity stress. Foliar application with nano-fertilizer via enhancing chlorophyll index, relative leaf water content and improving root characteristics, led to increase yield and seed yield components of quinoa. Therefore, it seems that foliar application of nano-fertilizers is suitable to improve the yield of quinoa especially in salinity stress conditions. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ionic leakage
  • morphological traits
  • Nano-Fertilizer
  • Quinoa
  • Salinity stress
  • yield
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