تاثیر کود شیمیایی و غیر شیمیایی بر میزان ماده‌خشک رزماری در رقابت با علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی میزان ماده‌خشک رزماری (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) و علف‌های هرز تحت تاثیر منابع کودی مختلف، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل رقابت گیاه زراعی و علف‌های هرز (در دو سطح وجود و نبود علف‌های هرز) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و منابع کودی شامل: کود دامی، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود دامی + ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی NPK (N 46%, P2O5 46%, K2O 50%)، نانو‌کود NPK و شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که رقابت با علف‌های هرز باعث شد که گیاه رزماری حداکثر تجمع ماده‌خشک خود را به لایه‌های بالاتر (40-20 سانتی‌متر) منتقل نماید؛ در حالی‌که در شرایط حذف رقابت با علف‌‌های هرز، گیاه رزماری از توانایی و یکنواختی بالاتری در حفظ ماده‌خشک در دو لایه ابتدایی کانوپی در مقایسه با شرایط حضور علف‌های هرز برخوردار بود. در این خصوص تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست با میانگین 51/49 گرم بیشترین ماده‌خشک تک بوته را داشت. بررسی‌های انجام شده روی تراکم و زیست توده‌ی علف‌های هرز نشان داد که کاربرد کود ورمی‌کمپوست به تنهایی (تیمار 2) تراکم و زیست توده علف هرز را کاهش دهد؛ در‌حالی‌که تیمار کود شیمیایی بیشترین تراکم و زیست توده علف‌های هرز را داشت. نتایج نشان داد، کاربرد کودهای آلی نظیر ورمی‌کمپوست ضمن کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و نیز نداشتن عواقب سوء زیست محیطی، توانایی بالایی در مهار رشد علف‌های هرز داشته و موجب کاهش تراکم و زیست توده علف‌های هرز می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of chemical and none chemical fertilizer on rosemary dry matter in competition with weeds

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam sadegh 1
  • Faezeh Zaefarian 2
  • Vahid Akbarpour 3
  • mostafa emadi 4
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to determine the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) dry matter and weeds under different fertilizer sources, an experiment was conducted as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2016. The treatments consisted of: competition between plants and weeds (weedy check and weed free) as the main factor, and sub factor was fertilizer sources included sheep manure, vermicompost, sheep manure + vermicompost, NPK chemical fertilizer (N 46%, P2O5 46%, K2O 50%), NPK nano fertilizer and control (no fertilizer). The results showed that interference with weeds caused rosemary shift the maximum dry matter to the upper layers of canopy (20-40 cm). While in weed free treatment, rosemary had higher ability and uniformity in dry matter distribution in the two primary canopy layers compared to competition with weeds. In this regard, vermicompost treatment was successful with a mean of 49.51 g plant-1. Studies on density and weed biomass showed that the use of vermicompost (treatment 2) reduced density and biomass of weeds, while the chemical fertilizer caused the highest weed density and biomass. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost, not only reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and do not have environmental consequences, but also have the high ability to suppress weeds growth and decrease weed density and biomass.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomass
  • Competitive stress
  • Canopy structure
  • Density
  • Medicinal plant
Abbasi, H., Aghaalikhani, M. & Hamzei, J. (2015). Interaction between black plastic mulch, irrigation interval and biofertilizers on weeds biomass and yield of naked-seeds pumpkin. Agroecology, 5(1), 102-113. (in Persian)

Aghaalikhani, M., Zaefarian, F., Zand, E., Rahimian Mashhadi, H. & Rezvani, M. (2009). Corn and soybean intercropping canopy structure as affected by competition from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelxus L.) and jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.). Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 5, 39-53. (in Persian)

Ahmad Abadi, Z., Ghajar Sepanlou, M. & Rahimi Alashti, S. (2012). Effect of vermicompost on physical and chemical properties of soil. Iranian Journal of Water and Soil Sciences, 15(58), 125-137. (in Persian)

Ahmadvand, G., Nasiri Mahallati, M. & Koocheki, A. (2006a). Effect of light competition and nitrogen fertilizer on (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars to weed competition. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 6(2), 91-105. (in Persian)

    Ahmadvand, G., Nasiri Mahallati, M. & Kouchaki, A.R. (2006b). Effect of light competition and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy structure of wheat and wild oat. Bimonthly Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 12(6), 100-112. (in Persian)

Ali, K., Arif, M., Ullah, W., Ahmad, W., Khan, M., Ayeni, L., Amin, M. & Jehangir, M. (2015). Influence of organic and inorganic amendments on weeds density and chemical composition. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 21, 47-57.

Aminpanah, H., Soroush zadeh, A., Zand, A. & Momeni, A. (2010). Investigation of light extinction coefficient and canopy structure of more and less competitiveness of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.). Crop Production, 2(3), 69-84. (in Persian)

Azizi, M., Rezwanee, F., Hassanzadeh Khayat, M., Lackzian, A. & Neamati, H. (2008). The effect of different levels of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological properties and essential oil content of german chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24(1), 82-93. (in Persian)

Behdarvand, P., Chinchanikar, G. & Dhumal, K. (2012). Influences of different nitrogen levels on competition between spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(12), 134-139. DOI:10.5539/jas.v4n12p134

Blackshaw, R.E. (2005). Nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and compost effects on weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Agronomy, 97, 1612-1621. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2005.0155

Blackshaw, R.E., Brandt, R.N., Janzen, H.H., Entz, T., Grant, C.A. & Derksen, D.A. (2003). Differential response of weed species to added nitrogen. Weed Science, 51, 532-539.

Brainard, D.C., Bellinder, R.R. & Ditommaso, A. (2005). Effects of canopy shade on the morphology, phenology, and seed characteristics of powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii). Weed Science, 53, 175-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-04-067R1

Calkins, J.B. & Swanson, B. (1995). Comparison of conventional and alternative nursery weed management strategies. Weed Technology, 9(4), 761-767. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890037X00024179

Caton, B.P., Mortimer, A.M., Foin, T.C., Hill, J.E., Gibson, K.D. & Fischerà, A.J. (2001). Weed shoot morphology effects on competitiveness for light in direct-seeded rice. Weed Research, 41, 155-163. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3180.2001.00228.x

Celiktas, O.Y., Kokabas, E.E.H., Bedir, E., Sukan, F.V., Ozek, T. & Baser, K.H.C. (2007). Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of rosmarinus officinalis L. depending on location and seasonal variation. Food Chemistry, 100, 553-559. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.011

Chamanabad, H.R.M., Ghorbani, A., Asghari, A., Tulikov, A.M. & Zargarzadeh, F. (2009). Long-term effects of crop rotation and fertilizers on weed community in spring barley. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33, 315-323. DOI: 10.3906/tar-0712-47

Davis, A. & Liebman, M. (2001). Nitrogen source influences wild mustard growth and competitive effect on sweet corn. Weed Science, 49, 558-566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0558:NSIWMG]2.0.CO;2

Delfih, M.R., Modarres Sanavi, A.M. & Farhoudi, R. (2015). Effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems on yield and competition ability of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) against mallow (Malva spp.). Weed Research, 7(2), 71-86. (in Persian)

Dhimia, K. & Eleftherohorinos, I. (2005). Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) competition with three winter cereals as affected by nitrogen supply. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 191, 241-248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2005.00152.x

Dianat, M., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Alizadeh, H.M. & Zand, E. (2005). Evaluation of important traits in competitive ability of wheat cultivars (Teriticum aestivum L.) against rye (Secale cereal). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 71, 58-66. (in Persian)

Ghalambaz, S., Aynehband, A. & Moezzi, A.A. (2013). Evaluation of relation between weed population and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat as affected by integrated fertilizer management. Agroecology, 5(4), 473-482. (in Persian)

Gity, S. & Raoofy, M. 2017. Yield, essential oil and some morphological characteristics of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) influenced by hand weeding and plant density. Journal of Agricultural Sciences sustainable production, 27(1), 13-23. (in Persian)

Huggins, D.R. & Pan, W.L. (2003). Key indicators for assessing nitrogen use efficiency in cereal-based agroecosystems. Journal of Crop Production, 8(1-2), 157-186. https://doi.org/10.1300/J144v08n01_07

Mafakheri, S. (2017). Effect of some organic and chemical fertilizers on morphological and biochemical factors of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Plant Productions, 40(3), 27-40. (in Persian)

Massinga, R.A., Currie, R.S., Horak, M.J. & Boyer, J. (2001). Interference of palmer amaranth in corn. Weed Science, 49, 202-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0202:IOPAIC]2.0.CO;2

Moaveni, P. (2010). Medicinal plants. First volume, Islamic Azad University, Ghods, Islamic Republic of Iran. 87-78 p. (in Persian)

Moechnig, M.J., Boerboom, C.M., Stoltenberg, D.E. & Binning, L.K. (2003). Growth interactions in communities of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and corn. Weed Science, 51, 363-370. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2003)051[0363:GIICOC]2.0.CO;2

Mosier, D.G. & Oliver, L.R. (1995). Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) and entireleaf momingglory (Ipomoea hederacea Var. integriuscula) interference on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Weed Science, 43, 239-246.

Nasri, S. (2012). A review of the antinociceptive use of medicinal plants in iran. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Traditional Medicine, 3(3), 293-310. (in Persian)

Rahimi, A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Agha Alikhani, M. & Karimi kalaleh, M. (2006). Investigation of dry matter in canopy orientation in corn (Zea mays L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in competition condition. The First Iranian Weed Science Congress, Tehran, Iran. 25-26 January 2006 p 354-359. (in Persian)

Raoofy, M., Khanjani, M., Daneshian, J. and Giti, S. 2014., Integrated weed management in perennial Alfalfa and theirs effects on soil’s micro fauna. International Journal of Farming and Allied Science, 3: 340-435.

Regnier, E.E. & Stoller, E.W. (1989). The effects of soybean interference on the canopy architecture of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and velvetleaf (Abutilon thephrasti). Weed Science, 37: 187-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500071769

Rezvani, M., Zaefarian, F. & joveini, M. (2010). Response of canopy structure of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars to weed competition. Iranian Weed Science, 6(2), 91-105. (in Persian)

Sahoo, S. (2001). Conservation and utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants. Allied publishers, New Delhi, India, p 423.

Sajadinik, R. & Yadavi, A.R. (2013). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, vermicompost and nitroxin on growth indices, phenological stages and grain yield of sesame. Crop production, 6(2), 73-100. (in Persian)

Samaey, M., Akbary, A. & Zand, E. (2006). The study of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) competition and density effects on morphological characteristics, yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Islamic Azad University), 12, 41-55. (in Persian)

Smith, H. (1982). Light quality, photoreception and plant strategy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 33, 481-518. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.002405

Traore, S., Mason, S.C., Martin, A.R., Mortensen, D.A. & Spotanski, J.J. (2003). Velvetleaf interference on yield and growth of grain sorghum. Agronomy Journal, 95, 1602-1607.

Yaghoubi, S.R., Aqa Alikhani, M. & Zand, A. 2012. Effect of the timing of emergence of seedling on morphological characteristics and seed production of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in competition with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 13(1), 32-48. (in Persian)