اثر محلول‏پاشی گیاه مادری به وسیله قارچ‌کش‌های مختلف بر سلامت، جوانه‌زنی و بنیه بذر سویا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر محلول‏پاشی قارچ‏کش‏های مختلف بر کیفیت بذر سویا آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان در سال 1395 انجام شد. عامل اصلی شامل دو تاریخ کاشت بهاره (28 اردیبهشت) و تابستانه (10 تیر) و عامل فرعی شامل محلول‏پاشی با قارچ‏کش‏های مختلف از قبیل بنومیل، مانکوزب، پروپیکونازول، تیوفانات متیل، کاربندازیم و شاهد در دو مرحله رشدی R3 و R6 بود. برای ارزیابی کیفیت محموله‏های بذری تولیدی از آزمون‏های جوانه‏زنی، تسریع پیری، هدایت الکتریکی و سلامت بذر استفاده شد. در این تحقیق دو قارچ آلترناریا و فوزاریوم در محموله‏های بذری مشاهده شد. میزان شیوع فوزاریوم در کلیه تیمارها بسیار پایین (کمتر از هفت درصد) بود. بنابراین، سلامت بذر بیشتر تحت تأثیر آلترناریا قرار داشت. درصد بذرهای سالم در کشت بهاره 48/21 درصد بیشتر از کشت تابستانه بود. همه قارچ‏کش‏های مورد استفاده (به‏ویژه پروپیکونازول و تیوفانات متیل) سلامت، قابلیت جوانه‏زنی و قدرت بذر را در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد به طور معنی‏داری افزایش دادند. کشت تابستانه با وجود آلودگی‏های قارچی بیشتر، به دلیل برخورد مراحل نمو بذر (R5-R8) با دماهای پایین‏تر دارای جوانه‏زنی و بنیه بذر بیشتری در مقایسه با بذرهای حاصل از کشت بهاره بودند. درواقع، دما عامل مهمتری در تعیین قابلیت جوانه‏زنی و بنیه بذر در مقایسه با عوامل بیماری‏زا بود. بنابراین، برای دست‏یابی به حداکثر کیفیت بذر، بهتر است از کشت تابستانه همراه با کاربرد قارچ‏کش‏های مناسب از جمله پروپیکونازول و تیوفانات متیل در دو مرحله R3 و R6، استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of foliar spraying of maternal plant by different fungicide on the health, germination and vigour of soybean seeds

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Gorzin 1
  • Farshid Ghaderi-Far 2
  • Seyed Esmaeil Razavi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate effects of different fungicide spraying treatments on soybean seed quality, a split plot experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources in 2016. Two spring (May 28) and summer (July 10) planting dates performed at main plots and fungicides spraying including benomyl, mancozeb, propiconazole, methyl thiophanate, carbendazim and control in two stages R3 and R6 were done in sub plots. Germination, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, and seed health tests were used to evaluate the quality of seeds. Two fungi Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. spread were observed in seed lots, but lower prevalence for Fusarium sp.. Therefore, seed health was most affected by Alternaria sp.. The percentage of healthy seeds in spring sowing date was 21.48% higher than summer sowing date. All used fungicides (especially propiconazole and methyl thiophanate) significantly increased the health, germination, and vigor of seeds compared to control. The produced seeds in summer planting despite of more fungal infection, had higher seed germination and vigor than seeds of spring crops, because of exposing the seed development stages (R5-R8) to low temperatures. In the fact that, air temperature during seed development stages was more important in determining seed germination and vigor compared to pathogens. Therefore, in order to achieve high seed quality, it is appropriate to use summer planting with the utility of suitable fungicides such as propiconazole and methyl thiophanate at R3 and R6 growth stages.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternaria sp
  • Fusarium sp
  • relative humidity
  • seed quality
  • temperature
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