تأثیر کم آبیاری بر رشد رویشی، عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب پرتقال مارس ارلی در جنوب کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

4 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جیرفت، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران.

چکیده

با توجه به این‌که کم‌آبیاری کنترل‌شده و آبیاری زیرسطحی منجر به افزایش کارایی مصرف آب و صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب می-شوند، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان طی سال‌های 94 تا 96 اجرا شد. در این پژوهش دو فاکتور کم‌آبیاری (100 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه در تمامی مراحل رشد گیاه، 100-60 درصد و 80 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه به جز در مراحل گلدهی و تشکیل میوه) و روش آبیاری (آبیاری زیرسطحی عمقی، قطره‌ای زیرسطحی و قطره‌ای سطحی) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. صفات رویشی، عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب در طول دوره رشد پرتقال رقم مارس‌ارلی بر پایه نارنج اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد کم‌آبیاری کنترل‌شده سبب 17 درصد صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب و کاهش معنی‌دار رشد رویشی نسبت به آبیاری کامل می‌شود، درحالی‌که هیچ‌گونه تفاوت معنی‌داری در عملکرد محصول مشاهده نشد. آبیاری زیرسطحی سبب 10 درصد صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب و افزایش رشد رویشی و کارایی مصرف آب نسبت به آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی شد. بنابراین می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد کم‌آبیاری کنترل‌شده و آبیاری زیرسطحی در افزایش کارایی مصرف آب و صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب بسیار مؤثر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of deficit irrigation on vegetative growth, yield and water use efficiency of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Mars Early) in south of Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Moghbeli damaneh 1
  • Rouhallah Fatahi 2
  • Behzad Ghorbani 2
  • Gholamreza Rabiei 3
  • Samad Esfandyari 4
1 PhD Student. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Jiroft, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Since the regulated deficit irrigation and subsurface irrigation cause to increase high water use efficiency and water saving, a field factorial experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center during 2014-2016. In this study, two factors including deficit irrigation (100 percent ETc in total growing stages, 60-100 percent and 80 percent ETc except in the flowering and fruit-filling stages) and irrigation method (deep subsurface, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation) were evaluated. Vegetative traits, yield and water use efficiency were measured during growing period of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Mars Early) grafted on Citrus aurantium. The results showed that the regulated deficit irrigation practices save water compared to complete irrigation of about 17 percent and reduce vegetative growth, although there were no statistically significant differences in yield. Subsurface irrigation saved water compared to surface drip irrigation of about 10 percent, improved vegetative growth and water use efficiency. Therefore, it can be concluded that regulated deficit irrigation and subsurface irrigation are very effective for improving the water use efficiency and water saving.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • citrus
  • Deep subsurface irrigation
  • Regulated Deficit irrigation
  • Subsurface drip irrigation
  • Water management

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