اثر اپی براسینولید بر رشد و عملکرد دانه لوبیا در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و اعمال تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی امکان افزایش عملکرد دانه لوبیا با کاربرد براسینواستروئید، پژوهشی به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ تحقیقاتی دانشکده‌ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان، در سال زراعی 1395-1394 اجرا شد. در این پژوهش، سطوح آبیاری شامل آبیاری مطلوب و اعمال تنش خشکی در کرت‌های اصلی قرار گرفت و ارقام لوبیا شامل رقم کوشا و ژنوتیپ COS16 و چهار سطح براسینواستروئید شامل عدم مصرف (شاهد)، دو، چهار و شش میکرومولار به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. در مرحله‌ گل‌دهی، تنش خشکی اعمال شد و هم‌زمان با اعمال تنش خشکی، بوته‌های لوبیا با براسینواستروئید (اپی‌براسینولید) محلول‌پاشی شد. نتایج نشان داد که اعمال تنش خشکی باعث کاهش شاخص سطح برگ، اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست‌توده و شاخص برداشت شد و کاربرد اپی‌براسینولید باعث به حداقل رساندن اثرات منفی تنش خشکی و افزایش در صفات فوق گردید. بالاترین عملکرد دانه با کاربرد غلظت دو میکرومولار اپی‌براسینولید با میانگین‌ 2/2068 کیلوگرم بر هکتار به‌دست آمد. در بین ارقام مورد مطالعه نیز، رقم کوشا در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب با میانگین 45/3025 کیلوگرم بر هکتار، عملکرد دانه بیشتری نسبت به ژنوتیپ COS16 نشان داد. بنابراین، کاربرد اپی‌براسینولید را به‏عنوان راه‌کاری جهت افزایش مقاومت به تنش خشکی و افزایش عملکرد دانه لوبیا در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی می‌توان پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of epibrassinolide on growth and seed yield of bean under optimal irrigation and drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Mohammadi 1
  • Afshin Tavakoli 2
  • Majid Pouryousef 2
  • Ehsan Mohsenifard 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the increment possibility of bean seed yield by the application of brassinosteroid, a split factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Agriculture Faculty, the University of Zanjan during the 2016-2017 cropping season. In this experiment, irrigation levels included optimal irrigation and drought stress were applied to main plots and bean cultivars including Kusha cultivar and COS16 genotype, and four levels of brassinosteroid including of no-application (control), two, four and six μM were allocated to subplots as factorial. Drought stress was applied at the flowering stage, and bean plants were sprayed with brassinosteroid (epibrassinolide) simultaneously with drought stress. The results showed that drought stress decreased leaf area index, yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index and the application of epibrassinolide minimized the negative effects of drought stress and increased in the above traits. The highest seed yield was obtained by application of two μM of epibrassinolide with an average of 2068.2 kg.ha-1. Also, among the studied cultivars, the Kusha cultivar under optimal irrigation with an average of 3025.45 kg.ha-1 showed a higher seed yield compared to COS16 genotype. Therefore, the use of epibrassinolide can be suggested as a solution to increase drought stress resistance and enhance seed yield of bean under optimal irrigation and drought stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • harvest index
  • leaf area index
  • Seed weight
  • Yield components
Ahmed, F.E. & Suliman, A.S.H. (2010). Effect of water stress applied at different stages of growth on seed yield and water use efficiency of cowpea. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(4), 534-540.

Ali, B., Hayat, S. & Ahmad, A. (2007). 28-Homobrassinolide ameliorates the saline stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59(2), 217-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.002

Anjum, S.A., Wang, L.C., Farooq, M., Hussain, M., Xue, L.L. & Zou, C.M. (2011). Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 197(3), 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2010.00459.x

Arteca, R.N. & Arteca, J.M. (2008). Effects of brassinosteroid, auxin, and cytokinin on ethylene production in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59(11), 3019-3026. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ern159

Bajguz, A. & Hayat, S. (2009). Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 47(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.10.002

Bastos, E.A., Nascimento, S.P., Silva, E.M., Filho, F.R.F. & Gomide, R.L. (2011). Identification of cowpea genotypes for drought tolerance. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 42(1), 100-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-66902011000100013

Behnamnia, M., Kalantari, K.M. & Ziaie, J. (2009). The effects of brassinosteroid on the induction of biochemical changes in Lycopersicon esculentum under drought stress. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33, 417-428. DOI:10.3906/bot-0806-12

Bera, A.K., Pramanik, K. & Mandal, B. (2014). Response of biofertilizers and homobrassinolide on growth, yield and oil content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(48), 3494-3503. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2013.8457

Contour-Ansel, D., Torres-Franklin, M.L., Zuily-Fodil, Y. & Cruz de Carvalho, M.H. (2010). An aspartic acid protease from common bean is expressed 'on call' during water stress and early recovery. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167(18), 1606-1612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2010.06.018

Emam, Y., Shekoofa, A., Salehi, F. & Jalali, A.H. (2010). Water stress effects on two common bean cultivars with contrasting growth habits. Agronomy and Soil Science, 9(5), 495-499.

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization. (2014). Crops production report from. http://faostat.fao.org

Hu, Y.Y., Zhang, Y.L., Yi, X.P., Zhan, D.X., Luo, H.H., Chow, W.S. & Zhang, W.F. (2013). The relative contribution of non-foliar organs of cotton to yield and related physiological characteristics under water deficit. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13(5), 975-989. DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60568-7

Li, X., Liu, Q., Yang, R., Zhang, H., Zhang, J. & Cai, E. (2015). The design and implementation of the leaf area index sensor. Sensors, 15(3), 6250-6269. DOI:10.3390/s150306250

Miyashita, K., Tanakamaru, S., Maitani, T. & Kimura, K. (2005). Recovery responses of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance in kidney bean following drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(2), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.015

Munoz-Perea, C.G., Teran, H., Allen, R.G., Wright, J.L., Westermann, D.T. & Singh, S.P. (2006). Selection for drought resistance in dry bean landraces and cultivars. Crop Science, 46(5), 2111-2120. DOI:10.2135/cropsci2006.01.0029

Omidi, F. & Sepehri, A. (2014). Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside on growth, yield and components of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under water deficit stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 45(2), 243-254. DOI: 10.22059/IJFCS.2014.51903 (in Persian)

Padilla-Ramirez, J.S., Acosta-Gallegos, J.A., Acosta-Diaz, E., Mayek-Perez, N. & Kelly, J.D. (2005). Partitioning and partitioning rate to seed yield in drought stressed and non-stressed dry bean genotypes. Annual report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 48, 153-175.

Pfeiffer, W.H. & McClafferty, B. (2007). HarvestPlus: Breeding crops for better nutrition. Crop Science, 47(S3), S88-S105. DOI:10.2135/cropsci2007.09.0020IPBS

Prakash, M., Suganthi, S., Gokulakrishnan, J. & Sabesan, T. (2008). Effect of homobrassinolide on growth, physiology and biochemical aspects of sesame. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(1), 110-112.

Rezaei, Z. & Jabbari, F. (2015). Effect of drought stress on photo assimilate allocation of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 46(2), 217-226. DOI: 10.22059/IJFCS.2015.54869. (in Persian)

Sabokdast, M. & Khyalparast, F. (2008). A study of relationship between grain yield and yield component in common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Water and Soil Science, 11(42), 123-133. (in Persian)

Sadeghipour, O., Ghafari Khalige, H. & Monem, R. (2005). Effect of plant density on yield and yield components of determinate and indeterminate cultivars of red beans. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11(1), 149-159. (in Persian)

Sengupta, K., Mitra, S. & Ray, M. (2009). Effect of brassinolide on growth and yield of summer green gram crop. Indian Agriculturist, 53(3/4), 155-157.

Sepehri, A., Abasi, R. & Karami, A. (2015). Effect of drought stress and salicylic acid on yield and yield component of bean genotypes. Agricultural Crop Management, 17(2), 503-516. DOI: 10.22059/JCI.2015.55196. (in Persian)

Singh, S.P. (2006). Drought resistant in the race Durango dry bean landraces and cultivars. Agronomy Journal, 99(5), 1219-1225. DOI:10.2134/agronj2006.0301

Talaat, N.B. & Shawky, B.T. (2012). 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the saline stress and improves the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 82, 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.03.009

Talaat, N.B. & Shawky, B.T. (2013). 24-Epibrassinolide alleviates salt-induced inhibition of productivity by increasing nutrients and compatible solutes accumulation and enhancing antioxidant system in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(3), 729-740. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-012-1113-9

Talaat, N.B. & Shawky, B.T. (2016). Dual application of 24-epibrassinolide and spermine confers drought stress tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) by modulating polyamine and protein metabolism. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 35(2), 518-533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-015-9557-y

Upreti, K.K. & Murti, G.S.R. (2004). Effects of brassinosteroids on growth, nodulation, phytohormone content and nitrogenase activity in French bean under water stress. Biologia Plantarum, 48(3), 407-411. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOP.0000041094.13342.1b

Yuan, G.F., Jia, C.G., Li, Z., Sun, B., Zhang, L.P., Liu, N. & Wang, Q.M. (2010). Effect of brassinosteroids on drought resistance and abscisic acid concentration in tomato under water stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 126(2), 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.06.014

Yu, J.Q., Huang, L.F., Hu, W.H., Zhou, Y.H., Mao, W.H., Ye, S.F. & Nogues, S. (2004). A role for brassinosteroids in the regulation of photosynthesis in Cucumis sativus. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(399), 1135-1143. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh124

Zhang, M., Zhai, Z., Tian, X., Duan, L. & Li, Z. (2008). Brassinolide alleviated the adverse effect of water deficits on photosynthesis and the antioxidant of soybean (Glycine max L.). Plant Growth Regulation, 56(3), 257-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-008-9305-4.