تغییرات صفات شاخص‌های رشدی بادام رقم شاهرود 12 روی برخی از پایه‌های رویشی تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار، پژوهشکده میوه‌های سردسیری و معتدله، مؤسسه تحقیقات باغبانی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار، تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

5 استادیار، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش وترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

چکیده

بادام حساسیت بالایی به تنش شوری دارد. انتخاب پایه و پیوندک مناسب یکی از راه‌های کاهش اثرات منفی تنش شوری می‌باشد. در این آزمایش، اثر تنش شوری بر برخی از صفات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و جذب عناصر آهن، روی و سدیم بادام در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور (ترکیب پایه و پیوندک در هشت سطح و تیمار شوری در پنج سطح) و سه تکرار در سال 1396 در مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی بررسی شد.نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش شوری از 3/0 تا هشت دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، بیشترین و کمترین درصد کاهش در وزن خشک ریشه به ترتیب در ترکیب شاهرود-12/تترا (8/37) و GN15 (5/14) مشاهده شد. کمترین و بیشترین درصد کاهش وزن خشک شاخه اصلی نیز به ترتیب در پایه شاهد بادام تلخ بذری (2/38) و ترکیب شاهرود-12/GN15 (9/47) مشاهده شد. بیشترین درصد نکروزگی در پایه شاهد بادام تلخ بذری (98/28) و کمترین مقدار آن نیز در ترکیب شاهرود-12/GF677 (9/9) رخ داد. کمترین و بیشترین درصد تغییر نشت الکترولیت‌ها در پایه شاهد GF677 (74/30) و GN15 (93/42) رخ داده است. بررسی سدیم نیز نشان داد که کمترین و بیشترین درصد تغییر به ترتیب در شاهرود-12 پیوند شده روی پایه GF677(2/51) و پایه‌ شاهد بادام تلخ بذری (82) مشاهده شد. براساس نتایج، با افزایش تنش شوری میزان عناصر ریشه و برگ در ابتدا افزایش و سپس با افزایش بیشتر در شدت تنش، روندی کاهشی به خود گرفت. بر اساس نتایج حاصله، ترکیب شاهرود-12/GF677 متحمل‌ترین و ترکیب شاهرود-12/بادام تلخ بذری حساس‌ترین ترکیب به تنش شوری بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in Growth Indices of the Almond ‘Shahroud 12’ Grafted on some Prunus Rootstocks under Salt Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Taher Saghali 1
  • Mohamd Esmail Amiri 2
  • Ali Imani 3
  • Hamed Rezaei 4
  • Ali Momenpour 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Temperate Fruit Research Center, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, soil and water research, agricultural research, education and development organization, Karaj, Iran.
5 Assistant Professor, National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Almond has a high sensitivity to salt stress. Selection of a tolerant rootstock/scion is one of the ways to reduce the negative effects of salinity stress. In this experiment, the effects of salinity stress on some morphological, physiological and nutritional traits of some almond rootstocks was investigated in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with two factors (8 levels of rootstock/scion compositions and five levels of salinity) in three replications at Horticultural Research Institute in 2017. The results showed that by increasing salinity from zero to 8 ds/m, the highest and lowest amount of reduction in root dry weight was observed in ‘Shahrood 12’/Tetra (37.8%) and GN15 (14.5%), respectively. The lowest and highest dry weight loss in the main branch was observed in the bitter almond seedling (38.2%) and ‘Shahrood 12’/ GN15 (47.9%), respectively. The highest amount of necrosis was observed in bitter almond seedling (28.98%) and the lowest value was in ‘Shahrood 12’/GF677 (9.9%). The lowest and highest changes in electrolyte leakage occurred at the rootstock of GF677 (30.74%) and GN15 (42.93%). The lowest and the highest changes in sodium were observed in the ‘Shahrood 12’/GF677 (51.2%) and in the bitter almond seedling (82%), respectively. The results also showed that by increasing salinity stress, the amount of root and leaf nutrient elements increased initially and then decreased with increasing salinity levels. Based on the results, ‘Shahrood 12’/GF677 is the most tolerable combination and the ‘Shahrood12’ grafted on bitter almond seedling is the most sensitive to salt stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • almond
  • Culture
  • morphological
  • Rootstock
  • salinity
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