عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to evaluating effect of smoke-water and urea fertilizer on some growth indices, grain yield and yield components of wheat, a field experiment was conducted as a split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The experiment was conducted during the season of 2015-2016 at Razi University Research Station, Iran. The experimental treatments were different levels of urea fertilizer application (included 90, 180, 300 and 360 kg ha-1) as main plot and leaf foliar application with different concentrations of smoke-water (included 0, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% v/v) as sub plot. The results showed that smoke-water significantly improved all evaluated traits and increased wheat grain yield compared to control treatment in all urea fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (922 g m-2) was obtained in application of 350 kg ha-1 urea and smoke-water at concentration of 1% v/v and the lowest grain yield (339 g m-2) was related to application 90 kg ha-1 urea and foliar with distilled water. The grain yield improved 15.22%, 11.36%, 7.18% and 7.67% by application of 90, 180, 300 and 360 urea kg ha-1 respectively, in smoke-water 1% concentration compared to the control treatment. It seems that smoke-water via improve increasing nitrogen efficiency could increase growth indices and grain yield of wheat.
Acreche, M. M. & Slafer, G. A. (2006) Grain weight response to increase in nuber of grains in wheat in editerranean area. Field Crops Research, 98, 52-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2005.12.005
Agriculture Economic aspects Iran Statistics (2015-2016) Volume one: crops. Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad. http://aar.maj.ir. (in Persian)
Aremu, O., Plackova, L., Novak, O., Strik, W. A., Dolezal, K. & VanStaden, J. (2016) Cytokinin profiles in ex vitro acclimatized Eucomisautumnalis plants pre-treated with smoke-derived karrikinolide. Plant Cell Reports, 35, 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-015-1881-y.
Aslam, M. M., Jamil, M., Khatoon, A., El-Hendawy, S. E., Al-Suhaibani, N. A., Shakir, S. K., Malook, I. & Rehman, S. (2015) Does weeds-derived smoke improve plant growth of wheat? Journal of Bio-Molecular Sciences, 3(2), 86-96.
Bonnett, G. D. & Incoll, L. D. (1992) Effect on the stem of winter barley of manipulating the source and sink during grain filling: Changes in accumulation and loss of mass from internodes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 44, 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/44.1.75
Borras, L., Slafer, G. A. & Otegui, M. E. (2004) Seed dry weight response to source-sink anipulations in wheat, maize and soybean: a quantitative reappraisal. Field Crops Research, 86, 131-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr. 2003.08.002
Chiwocha, S. D. S., Dixon, K. W., Flematti, G. R., Ghisalberti, E. L., Merritt, D. J., Nelson, D. C., Riseborough, J. A. M., Smith, S. M. & Stevens, J. C. (2009) Karrikins: a new family of plant growth regulators in smoke. Plant Science, 177, 252–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.06.007
Chumpookam, J., Lin, H. L. & Shiesh, C. C. (2012a) Effect of Smoke-water on seed germination and seedling growth of papaya (Carica papaya cv. TainungNo. 2). Hortscience, 47(6), 741–744.
Chumpookam, J., Lin, H. L., Shiesh, C. C. & Ku, K. L. (2012b) Effect of smoke-water on seed germination and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani inciting Papaya damping-off. Hoticulture NCHU, 34(1), 13-29.
Demir, I., Ozuaydin, F., Yasar, J. & VanStaden, J. (2012) Effect of smoke-derived butenolide priming treatment on pepper and salvia seeds in relation to transplant quality and catalase activity. South African Journal of Biotechnology, 78, 83-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2011.05.009
Flematti, G.R., Ghisalberti, E. L., Dixon, K. W. & Trengove, R. D. (2004) A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination. Science, 305, 977. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1099944
Gardner, M. J., Dalling, K. J., Light, M. E., Jager, A. K. & VanStaden, J. (2001) Does smoke substitute for red light in the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds by affecting gibberellin metabolism? South African Journal of Botany, 67, 636-640. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6299(15)31194-7.
Ghadiryan, R., Soltani, A., Zeinali, E., Kalateh, A. & Bakhshandeh, E. (2012) Evaluating non-linear regression models for use in growth analysis of wheat. Journal of Crop Production, 4(3), 55-77. (in Persian)
Ghebrehiwot, H., Kulkarni, M., Bairu, M. & Vanstaden, J. (2013) Plant-drived aerosol-smoke and smoke solutions influence agronomic performance of a traditional cereal crop. Tef. Experimental Agriculture, 49(2), 244-255. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479712001068
Ghorbani Javid, M., Sorooshzadeh, A., Mohaad Modarres sanavy, S. A., Allahdadi, I. & Moradi, F. (2011) Effects of exogenous application of auxin and cytokinin on carbohydrate accumulation in grains of rice under salt stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 65, 305-313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-011-9602-1
Girardin, P., Tollenaar, M., Deltour, A. & Muldoon, J. (1987) Temporary N starvation in maize (Zea mays L.): effcets on development, dry matter accumulation and grain yield. Agronomie (Paris), 7, 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:19870408.
Igbal, M., Asif, S., Ilyas, N., Raja, N. I., Hussain, M., Shabir, S., Ashraf Faz, M. N. & Rauf, A. (2016) Effect of Plant Derived Smoke on Germination and Post Germination Expression of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 806-813. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2016.76075