بررسی برخی از شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد دانه گندم در پاسخ به کاربرد کود اوره و دود - آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی ، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی ، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه،

3 استادیار اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی ، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

4 دانشیار فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی ، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد کود اوره و محلول‌پاشی برگی دود - آب بر برخی از شاخص‌های رشد، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه گندم آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی سال زراعی 1395-1394، در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف کاربرد کود اوره (90، 180، 300 و 360 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار) به عنوان عامل اصلی و محلول‌پاشی برگی با عصاره دود - آب (در پنج سطح شامل شاهد و غلظت‌های 001/0، 01/0، 1/0 و 1 درصد) به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که در تمامی سطوح کود اوره، محلول‌پاشی با دود - آب نسبت به شاهد موجب افزایش معنی‌دار پارامترهای رشد اندازه‌گیری شده، اجزای عملکرد و در نهایت افزایش عملکرد دانه گندم گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (922 گرم در متر‌مربع) در شرایط کاربرد 360 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار و غلظت یک درصد دود-آب و کمترین مقدار آن (339 گرم در مترمربع) در شرایط کاربرد 90 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار و محلول‌پاشی با آب مقطر بدست آمد. در سطوح کود اوره 90، 180، 300 و 360 کیلوگرم در هکتار، دود - آب در غلظت یک درصد به ترتیب موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه به میزان 22/15، 34/11، 18/7 و 67/7 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. به نظر می‌رسد کاریرد دود - آب از طریق بهبود کارایی نیتروژن و جبران افت عملکرد ناشی از کاهش مصرف آن منجر به بهبود شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد دانه گندم شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating some growth indices and grain yield in wheat in response to urea fertilizer and smoke-water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Babak Gholami 1
  • Faride Noroozi shahri 2
  • Farzad Mondani 3
  • Saeid Jalali honarmand 4
  • Mohsen Saeidi 4
1 Ms.c. Student of Agroecology, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Ph.D. student of crops Physiology, Department of Plant Production and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agricultural Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Ecology of Plants, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. E-mail address: f.mondani@razi.ac.ir
4 Associate Professor of Crops Physiology, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluating effect of smoke-water and urea fertilizer on some growth indices, grain yield and yield components of wheat, a field experiment was conducted as a split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The experiment was conducted during the season of 2015-2016 at Razi University Research Station, Iran. The experimental treatments were different levels of urea fertilizer application (included 90, 180, 300 and 360 kg ha-1) as main plot and leaf foliar application with different concentrations of smoke-water (included 0, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% v/v) as sub plot. The results showed that smoke-water significantly improved all evaluated traits and increased wheat grain yield compared to control treatment in all urea fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (922 g m-2) was obtained in application of 350 kg ha-1 urea and smoke-water at concentration of 1% v/v and the lowest grain yield (339 g m-2) was related to application 90 kg ha-1 urea and foliar with distilled water. The grain yield improved 15.22%, 11.36%, 7.18% and 7.67% by application of 90, 180, 300 and 360 urea kg ha-1 respectively, in smoke-water 1% concentration compared to the control treatment. It seems that smoke-water via improve increasing nitrogen efficiency could increase growth indices and grain yield of wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Butanolide
  • dry matter
  • growth rate
  • Leaf area
  • plant growth regulators
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