برآورد نیازهای سرمایی و گرمایی برخی ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌های تجاری کیوی در منطقه غرب مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکدة مرکبات و میوه‌‌های نیمه گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

اطلاع از نیاز دمایی درختان میوه، آثار مهمی در تولید و تعیین نواحی مناسب برای پرورش آن‌ها دارد. این پژوهش به روش قلمه‌های تک‌جوانه‌ای در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در پژوهشکدة مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری در سال 95-1394 انجام شد. در این پژوهش نیاز سرمایی ارقام هایوارد، توموری و ژنوتیپ‌های طلایی نر و مادة کیوی، براساس مدل‌های ساعات سرمایی، یوتا و دینامیک و نیاز گرمایی به روش درجة ساعت رشد (GDH) بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که نیاز سرمایی جوانه‌های ژنوتیپ طلایی ماده و نر به‌ترتیب برابر با 480 و 585 ساعت سرما و برای ارقام هایوارد و توموری برابر با 692 ساعت سرما بود. مقدار نیاز گرمایی جوانة ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌ها از بین 2233 GDH در ژنوتیپ‌ طلایی ماده تا 4066 GDH در جوانه‌های رقم هایوارد متغیر بود. نیاز سرمایی برای حداکثر گل‌دهی رقم هایوارد برابر با 966 ساعت سرما بود، در حالی‌که در رقم توموری و ژنوتیپ‌های طلایی نر و ماده نیاز سرمایی برای شکفتن جوانه‌های رویشی و گل‌دهی یکسان بوده و به‌ترتیب 692، 585 و 480 ساعت سرما بود. با تداوم دریافت سرما در جوانه‌ها، نیاز‌ گرمایی برای شکفتن آن‌ها کاهش یافت و همبستگی منفی و معنا‌دار بین نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی برای شکفتن جوانه‌ها به‌دست آمد. با توجه به نیاز سرمایی کم ژنوتیپ‌های طلایی نر و ماده، به‌نظر می‌رسد که شرایط اقلیمی در پراکندگی منطقة کشت آنها محدود‌کننده نباشد. تصور می‌شود که مدل‌های یوتا و دینامیک برای ارزیابی نیاز سرمایی مناسب‌تر از مدل ساعتی باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of chilling and heat requirements in some commercial cultivars and genotypes of kiwifruit in the west of Mazandaran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Abedi 1
  • Vali Rabie 2
  • Malek Ghasemi 3
  • Farhang Razavi 4
  • Javad Fattahi 3
1 Ph.D. candidate in Physiology and Fruit breeding, Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Information about the temperature requirements in fruit trees has an important effect on productivity and determining suitable regions for their growing. This research was carried out using single node cuttings test in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Citrus and Subtropical Research Center in 2015-16. This study was conducted to determine the chilling requirements of Hayward and Tomuri cultivars and male and female golden genotypes using three chilling models (Chilling hours, Utah, Dynamic) and their heat requirements using growth degree hours (GHD) method. Results showed that the chilling requirements of female and male golden genotype buds were 480 and 585 chilling hours, respectively, and for Hayward and Tomuri cultivars were 692 chilling hours. The amount of buds heat requirements in the cultivar and genotype ranged from 2233 GHD in female golden genotype to 4066 GHD in Hayward cultivar. Hayward cultivar required 966 hours of chilling requirement for maximum flowering, meanwhile Tomuri, male and female golden genotype had a similar chilling for both vegetative bud break and flowering including 692, 585 and 480 hours, respectively. With continued sampling, heat requirements reduced and significant negative correlation was found between chilling and heat requirements for bud break. From low chilling requirements of male and female golden genotypes, we can deduce that climatic conditions may be not limiting factor in the leading of them in growing area. It is thought that Utah and dynamic models may be more suitable than hour model to evaluate of chilling requirements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling models
  • chilling requirement index
  • Correlation
  • female golden
  • hayward

آمارنامة کشاورزی وزارت جهاد کشاورزی (1394) معاونت برنامه‌ریزی و اقتصادی مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات. تهران.

جوانشاه ا و ناظوری ف (1386) گرمایش جهانی، رکود و نیاز سرمایی در درختان مناطق معتدله، مؤسسة تحقیقات پسته. 193 ص.

رضایی م (1391) برآورد نیاز دمایی شش رقم تجاری زردآلوی منطقة شاهرود در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و مزرعه‌ای. به‌زراعی کشاورزی. 4 (1): 21-32.

عشقی س و گاراژیان م (1394) تعیین نیازهای سرمایی و گرمایی قلمه‌های انگور و تغییر کربوئیدرات و هورمون‌ها در دورة سرمادهی. علوم باغبانی ایران. 46 (3): 345-356.

Allona I, Ramos A, Ibanez C, Contreras A, Casado R and Aragoncillo C (2008) Molecular control of winter dormancy establishment in trees. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 6: 201-210.

Alonso JM, Anson JM, Espiau MT and Socias IR (2005) Determination of endodormancy break in almond flower buds by a correlation model using the average temperature of different day intervals and its application to the estimation of chill and heat requirement and blooming date. American Society for Horticultural Science. 130: 308-318.

Arora R, Rowland LJ and Tanino K (2003) Induction and release of bud dormancy in woody perennials: A science comes of age. HortScience. 38: 911-921.

Aslani AA, Vahdati K, Rahemi M and Hassani, D (2007) Estimation of chilling and heat requirements of some persian walnut cultivars and genotypes. HortScience. 44(3): 697-701.

Campoy JA (2009) Dormancy in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Factors affecting its evolution. Ingeniero Agrónomo, Murcia, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Campoy JA, Ruiz D, Cook NG, Allderman L and Egea J (2011) High temperatures and time to bud break in low chill apricot ‘Palsteyn’. Towards a better understanding of chill and heat requirements fulfillment. Scientia Horticulurae. 129: 649-655.

Campoy JA, Ruiz D and Egea J (2011) Dormancy in temperate fruit trees in a global warming context: A review. Scientia Horticulturae. 130: 357-372.

Citadin I, Raseira M.B, Herte G and Baptista SJ (2001) Heat requirement for blooming and leafing in peach. HortScience. 36: 305-307.

Couvillon GA and Erez A (1985) Effect of level and duration of high temperatures on rest completion in peach. American Society for Horticultural Science. 110: 579-581.

Egea J, Ortega E and Martinez P (2003) Chilling and heat requirement of almond cultivar for flowering. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 50: 79-85.

Erez A (2000) Bud dormancy; phenomenon, problems and solutions in the tropics and subtropics. In: Erez A (Ed.), Temperate fruit crops in warm climates. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 17- 48.

Fennell A (1999) Systems and approaches to studying dormancy: introduction to the workshop. HortScience. 34: 1172-1173.

Fishman S, Erez A and Couvillon GA (1987a) The temperature dependence of dormancy breaking in plants: mathematical analysis of a two-step model involving a cooperative transition. Theoretical Biology. 124: 473-483.

Fishman S, Erez A and Couvillon GA (1987b) The temperature dependence of dormancy breaking in plants: computer simulation of processes studied under controlled temperatures. Theoretical Biology. 126: 309-321.

Gao ZH, Zhuang WB, Wang LJ, Shao J, Luo XY, Cai BH and Zhang Z (2012) Evaluation of chilling and heat requirements in Japanese apricot with three models. HortScience. 47 (12): 1826-1831.

Ghelardini L, Santini A, Black-Samuelsson S, Myking T and Falusi M (2010) Bud dormancy in elm (Ulmus spp.) clones – a case study of photoperiod and temperature responses. Tree Physiology. 30: 264-274.

Gokbayak Z, Soylemezoglu G, Engin H and Dardeniz A (2010) Examination of flower bud differentiation and development in kiwifruit. Biology and Life Sciences. 1(1): 1-4.

Guerriero P, Scalabrelli G and Vitagliano C (1991) Effect of natural and artificial chilling on bud opening and fruitfulness of Actinidia deliciosa Chev. (Liang and Ferguson) single node cuttings (cv. Hayward and Tomuri). Acta Horticulture. 297: 223-229.

Hauagge R and Cummins JN (1991) Seasonal variation in intensity of bud dormancy in apple cultivars and related Malus species. American Society for Horticultural Science. 116: 107-15.

Heide OM (1993) Daylength and thermal time responses of bud burst during dormancy release in some northern deciduous trees. Physiologia Plantarum. 88: 531-540.

Howe GT, Saruup P, Davies J and Chen THH (2000) Quantitative genetics of bud phenology, frost damage and winter survival in an F2 family of hybrid poplars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 101: 632-642.

Junttila O and Hänninen H (2012) The minimum temperature for budburst in Betula depends on the state of dormancy. Tree Physiology. 32: 337-345.

Lionakis SM and Schwabe WW (1984) Effects of daylength, temperature and exogenous growth regulator application on growth of Actinidia chinensis Planch. Annual Botany. 54: 485-501.

Luedeling I, Minghua Z, Luedeling V and Girvetz EH (2009) Sensitivity of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees to climatic changes expected in California’s Central Valley. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 133: 23-31.

Mahmood K, Carew JG, Hadley P and Battey NH (2000) The effect of chilling and post-chilling temperatures on growth and flowering of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 75: 598-601.

McPherson HG, Stanley CJ and Warrenton IJ (1995) The response of budbreak and flowering to cool winter temperatures in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Horticultural Science. 70: 737-47.

Razavi F, Hajilou J, Tabatabaei SJ and Dadpour MR (2011) Comparison of chilling and heat requirement in some peach and apricot cultivars. Research in Plant Biology. 1(2): 40-47.

Richardson EA, Seeley SD and Walker DR (1974) A model for estimating the completion of rest for ‘Redhaven’ and ‘Elberta’ peach trees. HortScience. 1: 331-332.

Ruiz D, Campoy JA and Egea J (2007) Chilling and heat requirements of apricot cultivars for flowering. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 61: 254-263.

Salinger MJ, Kenny GJ and Morler-Bunker MJ (1993) Climate and kiwifruit CV. Hayward 1. Influences on development and growth. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 21: 235-45.

Sarvas R (1974) Investigations on the annual cycle of development of forest trees. II. Autumn dormancy and winter dormancy. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae. 84: 1-101.

Schwabe WW and Lionakis SM (1982) Growth and dormancy in Actinidia chinensis. 21st International Horticultural Congress Hamburg, International Society for Horticultural Science. 1: 1143 (Abst.)

Sibley JL, Dozier WA, Pitts JA, Caylor AW, Himelrick DG and Ebel RC (2005) Kiwifruit cultivars differ in response to winter chilling. Small Fruits Review. 4(4): 19-29.

Snelgar WP, Manson PJ and McPherson HG (1997) Evaluating winter chilling of kiwifruit using excised canes. Horticultural Science. 72(2): 305-315.

Snowball AM and Smith RC (1996) Flowering and fruiting rootless cuttings of kiwifruit. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 24: 355-360.

Tisne-Agostini D, Riolacci S and Habib R (1992) Modelling proportionate bud break in kiwifruit. Acta Horticulture. 307-313

Wall C, Dozier W, Ebel RC, Wilkins B, Woods F and Foshee W (2008) Vegetative and floral chilling requirements of four new kiwi cultivars of Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa. HortScience. 43(3): 644-647.

Walser RH, Walker DR and Seeley SD (1981) Effect of temperature, fall defoliation, and gibberellic Acid on the rest period of peach leaf bud. American Society for Horticultural Science. 106: 91-94.

Walton EF, Fowke PJ, Weis K and McLeay PL (1997) Shoot axillary bud morphogenesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Annals of Botany. 80: 13-21.

Warrington IJ and Weston GC (1990) Kiwifruit: science and management. New Zealand Society for Horticultural Science. Auckland, New Zealand, 576 p.

Zhuang W, Binhua C, Zhihong G and Zhen Z (2016) Determination of chilling and heat requirements of 69 Japanese apricot cultivars. European Journal of Agronomy. 74: 68-74.