اثر شاخص رسیدگی بر کیفیت میوه و روغن سه رقم زیتون منطقه رودبار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر شاخص رسیدگی میوه بر خصوصیات کیفی روغن سه رقم زیتون ’زرد‘، ’روغنی-محلی‘ و ’آربیکین‘ شهرستان رودبار استان گیلان، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 اجرا شد. میوه‌های هر رقم در شاخص‌های رسیدگی 5/3، چهار و پنج برداشت و پس از استخراج روغن، خصوصیات کیفی و بیوشیمیایی آن مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که میزان ماده خشک، ارزش پراکسید، اسیدیته آزاد، ضریب خاموشی در دو طول موج 232 و 270 نانومتر با افزایش شاخص رسیدگی میوه به‌طور معناداری افزایش یافت. درحالی‌که میزان فنل و فلاونوئید کل، رنگیزه‌های کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی روغن با افزایش رسیدگی میوه به‌طور معناداری کاهش یافت. همچنین، بین ارقام مختلف زیتون از لحاظ تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه تفاوت معناداری وجود داشت. در زیتون رقم ’روغنی-محلی‘ میزان فنل کل در شاخص‌های رسیدگی 5/3، چهار و پنج به ترتیب با میانگین 27/941، 74/657 و 32/310 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم روغن بیش‌تر از سایر ارقام بود. اما، ارزش پراکسید به‏عنوان یک صفت نامطلوب در روغن زیتون نیز در رقم ’روغنی-محلی‘ بالاتر بود. میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی در شاخص رسیدگی 5/3 و چهار بین ارقام زیتون متفاوت بود، ولی در شاخص رسیدگی پنج تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. در مجموع، نتایج نشان داد که افزایش شاخص رسیدگی میوه با کاهش ترکیبات آنتی‌اکسیدانی و حساسیت روغن زیتون به فرآیند اکسیداسیون همراه است. بنابراین، روغن به‌دست آمده از میوه‌های با شاخص رسیدگی 5/3 پایداری و ماندگاری بیش‌تری دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of ripening index on fruit and oil quality of three cultivars olive in Rodbar region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Ghasemnezhad 1
  • Hossein Meighani 2
  • Somayeh Eftekhari 3
1 Associate professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
3 MSc. graduated, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the evaluation of ripening index on qualitative parameters of three olive cultivars ('Zard', 'Local-Roghani' and 'Arbequin') in Roudbar city of Gilan province, an experiment was carried out according to a factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in 2014. Fruits were harvested at ripening index 3.5, 4 and 5 according to the method proposed by the international olive oil council and after oil extraction, its biochemical and qualitative characteristics were assessed. The results showed significant increases in dry mater, peroxide value, free fatty acid, extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 nm, coupled with significant decline in total phenolics and flavonoids, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments and antioxidant activity with advancing ripening index. Also, significant differences were observed among the olive cultivars in the all above traits. Total phenolics of olive oil in the 'Local-Roghani' cultivar at ripening index 3.5, 4 and 5 respectively with averages of 941.27, 657.74 and 310.32 mg/kg were more than others. However peroxide value, that is an undesirable trait in the olive oil, was higher in the 'Local-Roghani' cultivar. Although the antioxidant activity among olive cultivars was varied at ripening index 3.5 and 4, but no significant differences were observed at ripening index 5. Overall, the results showed that an increasing in the fruit ripening index was accompanied with decreased in the antioxidant compounds and sensitivity to oxidation of olive oil. Therefore, the oils obtained from the fruits at ripening index 3.5 had greater stability and sustainability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant compounds
  • Olive oil
  • peroxide value
  • ripening index
  • total phenol
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