اثر دما و شدت تشعشع بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج در شرایط اقلیمی مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد زراعت، بخش اصلاح و تهیه بذر، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در مازندران، آمل، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

3 استادیار، بخش اصلاح و تهیه بذر، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در مازندران، آمل، ایران.

4 استادیار پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

چکیده

به‌‏منظور بررسی اثر اقلیم­های متفاوت محلی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو رقم بومی و اصلاح شده برنج (’طارم هاشمی‘ و’شیرودی‘) و کمی­سازی روابط عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد با شدت تشعشع خورشیدی و دمای هوا در طول دوره رشد، سه آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سه منطقه  بابلسر، آمل و پل‌سفید از شهرستان­های استان مازندران در سال 1393 اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد که اثر اقلیم‌های متفاوت محلی بر برخی از صفات همچون عملکرد دانه، تعداد خوشه، وزن خوشه، طول خوشه، تعداد کل دانه در خوشه و تعداد دانه پر به طور آماری در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار گردید. مزارع پل‌سفید در کلیه صفات نسبت به مزارع آمل و بابلسر از مقادیر عددی پایین‌تری برخوردار بودند که علت آن را می‌توان به وقوع میانگین دمای هوا و شدت تشعشع خورشیدی پایین‌تر در طول دوره رشد برنج به خصوص در مرحله زایشی در این منطقه نسبت داد. کاهش میانگین دمای هوا و شدت تشعشع خورشیدی ناشی از افزایش ارتفاع از سطح آب‌های آزاد، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک (25-10 درصد وابسته به رقم) در هر دو رقم شد. علاوه بر این، تأثیر کاهش میانگین دمای هوا بر عملکرد دانه بیشتر از شدت تشعشع خورشیدی بود. در مجموع، با استفاده از یافته‌های این مطالعه به‏خوبی می‌توان تغییرات عملکرد دو رقم برنج را در اقلیمی‌های متفاوت محلی مورد مطالعه را کمّی‌سازی و همچنین کاهش احتمالی عملکرد برنج به دلیل تأخیر در کشت را نیز برآورد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of weather temperature and solar radiation on grain yield and yield components of rice under different local climates in Mazandaran province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Fathi 1
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 2
  • Morteza Nasiri 3
  • Esmaeil Bakhshandeh 4
1 MSc of Agronomy, Department of Seed Quality, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Deputy of Mazandaran, Amol, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Deputy of Mazandaran, Amol, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to investigate the effect of different local climates on grain yield (GY) and yield components (YC) of two different rice cultivars (cvs. ‘Tarom Hashemi’ and ‘Shiroudi’) and also to quantify the relationships between GY and YC with the average of weather temperature (T, °C) and solar radiation (SR, MJ m-2 d-1) during the growing season of rice. Three field experiments were conducted separately based on the randomized complete blocks design with four replications, at the paddy fields of Babolsar, Amol and Polesefid cities in northern Iran in 2014. The results indicated that the effect of different local climates were statistically significant on GY, the number of panicles, length of panicle, weight of panicle, total number of grain in each panicle and the number of filled grain (P < 0.01). In all traits, the values related to Polesefid were lower than both Amol and Babolsar which can be resulted in lower T and SR during the rice growing, especially in the reproductive stage. Decline in T and SR due to increasing in the above mean sea level were cased a decrease in GY and biological yield of both cultivars (about 10-25 percent, depending on the cultivar). In addition, GY was affected by decrease in T more than SR. Consequently, the results shown that we simply can quantify the variation in GY in both cultivars under different local climates and also can calculate a possible reduction in GY due to the delay in transplanting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Different local climates
  • regression analysis
  • rice
  • Solar radiation
  • weather temperature

خدابنده ن (1389) زراعت غلات. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران. چاپ دهم. 537 ص.

سلطانی ا (1386) کاربرد نرم­افزار SAS در تجزیه­های آماری برای رشته­های کشاورزی. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد. چاپ دوم. 182 ص.

سلطانی ا و مداح و (1389) برنامه­های کاربردی ساده برای آموزش و پژوهش در زراعت. انتشارات انجمن علمی بوم­شناختی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی. 80 ص.

Ali M, Naylor R and Matthews S (2006) Distinguishing the effects of genotype and seed physiological age on low temperature tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Experimental Agriculture Journal. 42:337-349.

Bandyopadhyay B (2013) Rice genotypes response to mid season stress on fertility and yield at high altitude. Journal of Rice Research. 6(1):32-49

Cao S Q, Zhai H Q, Yang T N, Zhang R X and Kuang T Y (2001) Studies on photosynthetic rate and function duration of rice germplasm resources. Chinease Journal Rice Science, 15: 29–34.

Cunxin L and Dehui L (1990) Final partitioning of the (14) CFED before and after heading of paddy rice grown at different altitude localities. Acta Botanica Yunnanica. 2-11

Deng N, Ling X, Sun Y, Zhang C, Fahad S, Peng S, Cui K, Nie L, and Huang J (2015) Influence of temperature and solar radiation on grain yield and quality in irrigated rice system. European Journal of Agronomy. 64:37-46.

Farrell T, Fox K, Williams R, and Fukai S (2006a) Genotypic variation for cold tolerance during reproductive development in rice: screening with cold air and cold water. Field Crops Research. 98:178-194.

 

Farrell T, Fox K, Williams R, Fukai S, and Lewin L (2006b) Minimising cold damage during reproductive development among temperate rice genotypes.  Genotypic variation and flowering traits related to cold tolerance screening. Crop and Pasture Science. 57:89-100.

Gbadamosi A, Daniel M M (2014) Effect of light intensity on growth and yield of a nigerian local rice variety-Ofada. International Journal of  Plant Research. 4: 89-94.

Jiang W, Lee J, Chu S H, Ham T H, Woo M O, Cho Y I, Chin J H, Han L, Xuan Y, and Yuan D (2010) Genotype×environment interactions for chilling tolerance of rice recombinant inbred lines under different low temperature environments. Field Crops Research. 117:226-236.

Krishnan P, Ramakrishnan B, Reddy K. R, and Reddy V (2011) Chapter three-high-temperature effects on rice growth, yield, and grain quality. Advances in Agronomy. 111:87-206.

Li J, Yuan J (2012) Research progress in effects of different altitude on rice yield and quality in China. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2:340-344.

Liu L, Zhu Y, Tang L, Cao W, and Wang E (2013) Impacts of climate changes, soil nutrients, variety types and management practices on rice yield in East China: A case study in the Taihu region. Field Crops Research. 149:40-48.

Liu Q, Cai J, Li T, and Zhang J (2007) Response of grain-filling properties and quality in rice to weak light during initial period of young spike. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis. 29:172-175.

Luo X, Zeng M, Zou Q, and Liang Z (1999) Study on the changes in ecological environment and hybrid rice development at different altitudes in Sichuan. Chinese Journal of Applied And Environmental Biology 5:142-146.

Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M, and Majumder R. R (2009) Effect of low temperature stress in transplanted Aman rice varieties mediated by different transplanting dates. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences. 2:132-138.

Peng S, Khush G, and Cassman K (1994) Evolution of the new plant ideotype for increased yield potential, Breaking the yield barrier. Proceedings of a workshop on rice yield potential in favourable environments. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. pp. 5-20.

Peng S, Huang J, Sheehy J. E, Laza R. C, Visperas R. M, Zhong X, Centeno G. S, Khush G. S, and Cassman K. G (2004) Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101:9971-9975.

Peng s and Esmail m (2004) Physiological basis of yield and envierment advanced. Book Physiology and biotechnology integration for plant breeding. 3:84-140.

Qi-hua L, Xiu W, Bo-cong C, Jia-qing M and Jie G (2014) Effects of low light on agronomic and physiological characteristics of rice including grain yield and quality.  Rice Science.  21(5): 243−251.

Sanchez B, Rasmussen A, and Porter J. R (2014) Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice: a review. Global Change Biology. 20:408-417.

Seyoum M, Alamerew S and Bantte K (2011) Evaluation of upland NERICA rice genotypes for grain yield and yield components along an altitude gradient in southwest Ethiopia. Journal of Agronomy. 10:105-111.

Sheehy J.E, Mitchell P, Allen L and Ferrer A.B (2006) Mathematical consequences of using various empirical expressions of crop yield as a function of temperature. Field Crops Research. 98:216-221.

Shimono H and Kanda E (2008) Does regional temperature difference before the panicle initiation affect the tolerance for low temperature-induced sterility in rice. Plant Production Science. 11:430-433.

Shimono H, Hasegawa T and Iwama K (2002) Response of growth and grain yield in paddy rice to cool water at different growth stages. Field Crops Research. 73:67-79.

Shimono H, Fujimura S, Nishimura T and Hasegawa T (2012) Nitrogen uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to low water temperatures at different growth stages. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 198:145-151.

Shrestha S, Asch F, Dusserre J, Ramanantsoanirina A and Brueck H (2012) Climate effects on yield components as affected by genotypic responses to variable environmental conditions in upland rice systems at different altitudes. Field Crops Research. 134:216-228.

Shrestha S, Asch F, Brueck H, Giese M, Dusserre J and Ramanantsoanirina A(2013) Phenological responses of upland rice grown along an altitudinal gradient. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 89:1-10.

Singh R. P, Prasad P. V and Reddy K. R (2013) Impacts of changing climate and climate variability on seed production and seed industry. Advances in Agronomy. 118:49-110.

Sun Y Y, Sun Y J, Chen L, Xu H and Ma J (2012) Effects of different sowing dates and low-light stress at heading stage on the physiological characteristics and grain yield of hybrid rice. Chinese Journal Applied Ecology. 23(10): 2737–2744.

Tashiro T and Wardlaw I (1991) The effect of high temperature on the accumulation of dry matter, carbon and nitrogen in the kernel of rice. Functional Plant Biology. 18:259-265.

Thakur P, Kumar S, Malik J. A, Berger J. D and Nayyar H (2010) Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 67:429-443.

J, Garcia del Moral L and Royo C (2015) Daylength, temperature and solar radiation effects on the phenology and yield formation of spring durum wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 1-14.

Wang Y, Handoko J and Rimmington G (1992) Sensitivity of wheat growth to increased air temperature for different scenarios of ambient CO2 concentration and rainfall in Victoria, Australia-a simulation study. Climate Research. 2:131-149.

Yoshida R, Kanno A, Sato T and Kameya T (1996) Cool-temperature-induced chlorosis in rice plants (I. Relationship between the induction and a disturbance of etioplast development). Plant Physiology. 110:997-1005.

Yoshida S (1981) Growth and development of rice plants In: Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 1-63

Yoshida S and Parao F (1976) Climatic influence on yield and yield components of lowland rice in the tropics. Climate and Rice.471-494.

Yuan J, Ding Z and Cai G (2005) The factors influencing RVA profile of rice starch and their changes with altitudes in Panxi region. Acta Agronomica Sinica. 31:1611-1619.

Zada A (2014) Performance of different rice genotypes in the cold climatic region of Malakand division. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 4:100-102.

Zhang B, Yamagishi J (2010) Response of spikelet number per panicle in rice cultivars to three transplanting densities. Plant Production Science. 13: 279–288.

Zhu P, Yang S. M, Ma J, Li S. X and Chen Y (2008) Effect of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield at later growth stage of hybrid rice combination. Acta Agronomy Since. 34(11): 2003-2009.