ارزیابی پاسخ های رشدی دو رقم زیتون در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه باغبانی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثرات تنش شوری بر ویژگی­های رشدی دو رقم زیتون زردʻ و میشنʻ، آزمایشی طی سال­های 94-1393 با پنج سطح شوری کلرید سدیم (صفر، 4، 8، 12 و 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) در محیط کشت بدون خاک در گلخانه پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاوزی و منابع طبیعی استان تهران انجام گردید. در این آزمایش، اثر شوری بر کلیه صفات رشدی در هر دو رقم مورد مقایسه، معنی­دار بود، به گونه­ای که وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، نسبت وزن خشک اندام هوایی به ریشه، طول شاخساره، فاصله میان گره، سطح برگ، سبزینه برگ، تعداد برگ، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، شاخص تحمل به شوری شاخساره و ریشه، به طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت. ضمن آن که کاهش صفات فوق در رقم زردʻ بیشتر بود و این رقم بیشتر تحت تأثیر شوری قرار گرفت. وزن خشک ساقه، برگ و ریشه در سطح شوری 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، به‌ترتیب 80، 80 و 69 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش معنیدار نشان دادند. با افزایش سطح شوری، غلظت سدیم و نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم در برگ هر دو رقم افزایش و غلظت پتاسیم کاهش یافت. افزایش سدیم و کاهش پتاسیم برگ در رقم ʻزردʻ بیشتر بود. وزن خشک اندام هوایی نیز تحت تأثیر غلظت سدیم و پتاسیم برگ قرار گرفت، به گونه‌ای که همبستگی معنی‌داری بین وزن خشک اندامهوایی با غلظت سدیم برگ، غلظت پتاسیم برگ و نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم برگ مشاهده گردید. با ارزیابی شاخص­های فوق نتیجه‌گیری شد که رقم میشنʻ در مقایسه با رقم زردʻ تحمل بیشتری نسبت به شوری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of growth responses of two olive cultivars under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Seilsepour 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Mohammad Reza Rouzban 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Soil Fertility and Chemistry, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

A greengouse experiment was conducted to evaluation of salinity stress on growth parameters of two olive cultivars during 2013-2014 at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Tehran. In the experiment, effects of five levels of irrigation water salinity including 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS.m-1 were evaluated on ʻZardʼ and ʻMissionʼ olive cultivars under soilless culture. Data showed that salinity had significant effects on all growth parameters in both olive cultivars. Leaf dry weight, shoot and root dry weight, leaf chlorophyll index, shoot and root tolerance index, shoot and internodes length, leaf area, leaf number and leaf relative water content were affected by salinity and significantly decreased. These reductions were more in ʻZardʼ comparing to ʻMissionʼ. Shoot dry weight, leaf dry weight and  root dry weight were decreased 80, 80 and 69 percent, respectively at 16 dS.m-1 salinity treatments with compare to control. Leaf sodium (Na+) concentration and rate of sodium to potassium (K+) in leaf were increased and leaf potassium concentration was decreased by salinity. Increase of Na+ and decrease of K+ were more in ʻZardʼ comparing to ʻMissionʼ. Also, leaf and shoot dry weight were affected by concentration of Na+, K+ and Na+: K+ in leaf and there were a significant correlation among these parameters with leaf and shoot dry weight. Results indicated that ʻMissionʼ variety were more salt tolerance than ʻZardʼ.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • olive
  • salt stress
  • Sodium to Potassium ratio
  • vegetative growth

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