اثر برهمکنش رقم و مالچ زنده بر عملکرد آفتابگردان و کنترل علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر رقم و مالچ زندهبر عملکرد دانۀ آفتابگردان و کنترل علف‌های هرز، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان در سال زراعی 1392 انجام گرفت. فاکتور­ها شامل رقم­های ’فرخ‘، ’آلستار‘ و ’آذرگل‘ و کنترل علف‌های هرز (وجین در تمام فصل، حضور علف هرز در تمام طول فصل رشد و کشت گیاهان پوششی گندم سیاه، یونجۀ یکساله، ماشک گل‌خوشه‌ای به‌عنوان مالچ زنده به‌تنهایی و در تلفیق با یک بار وجین) بود. در حضور گیاهان پوششی گندم سیاه، یونجۀ یکساله و ماشک گل‌خوشه‌ای به‌ترتیب 7/43، 8/33 و 25 درصد وزن خشک و 1/57، 1/38 و 29 درصد تراکم مجموع علف‌های هرز نسبت به شاهد (حضور علف هرز در تمام طول فصل رشد) کاهش یافت. همچنین تلفیق گیاهان پوششی با یک بار وجین به‌طور معناداری کنترل علف‌های هرز را بهبود بخشید. کمترین مقدار وزن خشک و تراکم علف‌های هرز در رقم ’آذرگل‘ دیده شد. بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ آفتابگردان در رقم ’آذرگل‘ و در شرایط وجین تمام فصل به‌دست آمد. تداخل علف‌های هرز، عملکرد دانۀ رقم‌های ’آذرگل‘، ’آلستار‘ و ’فرخ‘ را به‌ترتیب 6/18، 1/22 و 4/33 درصد نسبت به شاهد بدون علف هرز کاهش داد. به­طور کلی، بیشترین عملکرد دانه در رقم ’آذرگل‘ دیده شد. همچنین گیاه پوششی یونجۀ یکساله در تلفیق با یک بار وجین عملکرد دانۀ مشابه وجین تمام فصل ایجاد کرد. در مجموع، یونجۀ یکساله به‌صورت مالچ زنده و ’آذرگل‘ به‌عنوان رقمی با توان رقابت زیاد می‌تواند به‌عنوان بخشی از مدیریت تلفیقی علف‌های هرز در تولید پایدار آفتابگردان استفاده شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Interaction effect of cultivar and living mulch on sunflower yield and weed control

نویسندگان [English]

  • sediqe latifi 1
  • alireza yousefi 2
  • khalil jamshidi 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan – Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan – Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan – Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of crop cultivars and living mulchon sunflower yield and weed control, a field experiment was carried out as factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2013. Treatements were sunflower cultivars (‘Azargol’, ‘Allstar’, ‘Farokh’) and weed control treatments (weed-free, weed-infestation and intercropping of Fagopyrum esculentum, Medicago scutellata, Vicia villosa as living mulch alone and in combination with one hand-weeding).In comparison to weedy treatement, F. esculentum, M. scutellataand V.villosa cover crops were reduced total weed biomass 43.7, 33.8 and 25 percent, and weed density 57.1, 38.1 and 29, respectively. Weed control was improved significantly when cover crops used in combination with one hand-weeding. The lowest weed biomass and density were recorded in the ‘Azargol’ cultivar. The highest Sunflower leaf area index (LAI) was obtained in ‘Azargol’ cultivar under weed-free condition. Weed interference decreased grain yield of ‘Azargol’, ‘Allstar’ and ‘Farokh’ by 18.6, 22.1 and 33.4 percent, respectively compared to weed-free plots. The highest grain yield was obtained in ‘Azargol’ cultivar. Medicago scutellataas cover crop in combination with one hand weeding resulted in yields similar to the weed-free treatment. Overall, the results of this study revealed that the use of M. scutellataas living mulch and ‘Azargol’ as competitor cultivar can be used as part of an integrated weed management for sustainable sunflower production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecological weed management
  • Living mulch
  • Sunflower grain yield
  • Weed interference
  • weeding

 

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