بررسی برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و مورفولوژیکی سه رقم سیب پیوند شده روی پایه‌های رویشی MM111 ،MM106 و M9

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش آب و خاک، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

در زمان احداث باغ سیب، مهم‌ترین تصمیم انتخاب پایه و رقم است. پایه و رقم، بر اندازة درخت، عملکرد و کیفیت میوه تأثیر دارند. عدم بررسی کافی تأثیر پایه‌ها و ارقام بر صفات یادشده، به نتیجة نادرست یا عدم موفقیت در مدیریت باغ می‌انجامد. در این آزمایش، اثر سه پایة رویشی MM106، MM111 وM9  بر رشد رویشی و زایشی و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی سه رقم سیب (Malus domestica Borkh.) ’گلدن‌دلیشز‘، ’فوجی‘ و ’دلباراستیوال‘ به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایة طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در شهرستان خدابنده (استان زنجان) در سال‌های 1390 و 1391 بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد ترکیب‌های مختلف پایه و رقم اثر معناداری بر قدرت رویشی، تشکیل میوة اولیه و نهایی، عملکرد در درخت و عملکرد در هکتار، میزان وزن خشک میوه، سرعت فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه‌ای و شدت تعرق برگ، کارایی مصرف آب و کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در برگ دارد. رقم ’گلدن‌دلیشز‘ بیشترین و رقم ’فوجی‘ کمترین طول میوه را در دو سال آزمایش دارا بودند. بیشترین قطر تاج درخت در رقم ’دلباراستیوال‘ مشاهده شد. در میان پایه‌های بررسی‌شده، کمترین قطر تاج درخت در پایة  M9مشاهده شد. فعالیت آنزیم نیترات‌ ردوکتاز تحت تأثیر رقم و پایه قرار گرفت و بیشترین فعالیت این آنزیم در برگ‌های رقم ’گلدن‌دلیشز‘ روی پایة M9 اندازه‌گیری شد. ’دلباراستیوال‘ روی پایة MM106 و ’گلدن‌دلیشز‘ روی پایة M9، مناسب‌ترین ترکیب‌های پیوندی از نظر خصوصیات بررسی‌شده در این پژوهش تشخیص داده شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of some physiological and morphological characteristics of three apple cultivars onto vegetative rootstocks, MM106, MM111 and M9

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Shaeri 1
  • Vali Rabie 2
  • Mehdi Taheri 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 . Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rootstock and cultivar selection is the most critical decision at the time of an apple orchard establishment. Tree size, yield and fruit quality are affected by roostock and cultivar. Non-sufficient study of rootstocks and cultivars effects on mentioned traits will lead to incorrect result or failure in orchard managing. In this study the effects of three vegetative rootstocks (MM106, MM111 and M9) on vegetative and reproductive growth and some physiological characteristics of three apple )Malus domestica Borkh.( cultivars, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Fuji’ and ‘Delbarestival’ were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design in Khodabande (Zanjan Province) during two growing seasons in 2011 and 2012. The results showed that different combinations of rootstock and cultivar have significant effects on vegetative vigor, primary and final fruit set, yield per tree and yield per hectare, amount of fruit dry weight, leaf photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductivity and transpiration rate, water use efficiency and leaf soluble carbohydrates. In two years of study, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Fuji’ cultivars had the highest and lowest fruit length, respectively. The highest trees were observed in ‘Delbarestival’ cultivar. Among the evaluated rootstocks, the lowest tree canopy diameter was measured in M9 rootstock. Nitrate reductase activity was affected by cultivar and rootstock and the highest activity of this enzyme was measured in leaves of ‘Golden Delicious’ cultivar grafted on M9 rootstock. ‘Delbarestival’ onto MM106 rootstock and ‘Golden Delicious’ onto M9 rootstock were the most appropriate grafting combination based on the studied traits in this research .
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apple
  • Carbohydrates
  • june drop
  • Nitrate reductase enzyme
  • productivity
 

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