بررسی تأثیر دما و فتوپریود بر مراحل رشدو نمو دو رقم کلزا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر دما و فتوپریود بر سرعت نمو مراحل مختلف رویشی و زایشی کلزا، آزمایشی در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گنبد، در دو سال زراعی 85-1384 و 86-1385 اجرا شد. با تأخیر در کاشت، طول دورۀ رویشی و زایشی به­طور خطی کاهش یافت. رابطۀ بین میانگین دما با طول دورۀ نمو، برای دورۀ کاشت تا سبز شدن و سبز شدن تا شروع غنچه­دهی توانی منفی، شروع غنچه­دهی تا شروع گلدهی و شروع گلدهی تا شروع پر شدن دانه درجۀ 2 و شروع پر شدن دانه تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک خطی منفی بود. کاهش طول دورۀ پر شدن دانه با افزایش دما در هیبرید ‘هایولا 401’ به­طور شایان توجهی بیشتر از رقم ‘آرجی­اس003’ بود که نشان­دهندۀ واکنش بیشتر نمو هیبرید ‘هایولا401’ نسبت به دما بود. بین میانگین فتوپریود از سبز شدن تا شروع گلدهی با درجۀ روز رشد تجمعی طی این مرحله رابطۀ خطی مثبت وجود داشت که به­ترتیب 68 و 74 درصد از تغییرات در هیبرید ‘هایولا401’ و رقم ‘آرجی­اس003’ را توجیه کرد و نشان­دهندۀ تأثیر مثبت فتوپریود بر نمو کلزا از سبز شدن تا شروع گلدهی بود. نمو کلزا از سبز شدن تا شروع گلدهی تحت تأثیر فتوپریود و دما و از شروع گلدهی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک تحت تأثیر دما بود. 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and development periods of two canola cultivars

نویسنده [English]

  • Abolfazl Faraji
Associated Professor, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Golestan, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of temperature and photoperiod (PP) on development rate of different vegetative and reproductive stages of canola, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad during 2005-2007. The experiment was a randomized complete block design arranged in a split-plot in two conditions, for example supplemental irrigation and rainfed. There were different regression equations between mean temperature and duration of development periods, i.e. a negative power equation for periods from planting to emergence and from emergence to beginning of budding, a quadratic equation for periods from beginning of budding to beginning of flowering and beginning of flowering to beginning of seed filling, and a negative linear equation for period from beginning of seed filling to physiological maturity. The decrease in seed filling period with increase in temperature was considerably higher in Hyola401 hybrid than RGS003 cultivar, indicating that the response of Hyola 401 development to temperature was more than RGS003. There was a positive linear relationship between mean PP from emergence to beginning of flowering with cumulative thermal time during this period, explaining 68 and 74 percent of the variation for Hyola401 and RGS003 cultivars, respectively, showing the positive effect of PP on canola development from emergence to beginning of flowering. Canola development was affected by PP and temperature during emergence to beginning of flowering, and temperature during beginning of flowering to physiological maturity.
 
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canola
  • Cultivar
  • Gonbad
  • Sowing date
  • Thermal time
 

1 . اسدی م ا و فرجی ا (1388) مبانی کاربردی زراعت دانه­های روغنی (سویا، پنبه، کلزا و آفتابگردان). نشر علم کشاورزی ایران. 84 ص.

2 . خواجه­پور م ر (1386) اصول و مبانی زراعت (نگارش دوم). انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان. 386 ص.

3 . عزیزی م، سلطانی ا و خاوری س (1378) کلزا، فیزیولوژی، زراعت، به­نژادی و تکنولوژی زیستی. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد. 230 ص.

4 . فرجی ا و محتشم امیری ا (1392) مدیریت تنش­های محیطی در مزارع کلزا. انتشارات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی. 137 ص.

5 . فرجی ا، رئیسی س، هزارجریبی ا و مبصر س (1391) گیاهان روغنی. انتشارات نوروزی. چاپ اول. 542 ص.

6 . Adamsen FJ and Coffelt TA (2005) Planting date effects on flowering, seed yield, and oil content of rape and crambe cultivars. Industrial Crops Production. 21: 293-307.

7 . Addae PC and Pearson CJ (1992) Thermal requirements for germination and seedling growth of wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 43: 585-594.

8 . Angadi SV, McConkey BG, Ulrich D, Cutforth HW, Miller PR, Entz MH, Brandt SA and Volkmar K (1999) Developing viable cropping options for the semiarid prairies. Project Rep. Agric. and Agri-Food Can., Swift Current, SK.

9 . Berry PM and Spink JH (2006) A physiological analysis of oilseed rape yields: Past fut. Journal of Agricultural Science. 144: 381-392.

10 . Caliskan ME, Caliskan M, Arslan M and Arioglu H (2008) Effects of sowing date and growth duration on growth and yield of groundnut in a Mediterranean-type environment in Turkey. Field Crops Research. 105: 131-140.

11 . Chen C, Jackson G, Neill K, Wichman D, Johnson G and Johnson D (2005) Determining the feasibility of early seeding canola in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal. 97: 1252-1262.

12 . Faraji A (2012) Oil concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.), as a function of environmental conditions during seed filling period. International Journal of Plant Production. 2: 267-277.

13 . Faraji A, Latifi N, Soltani A and Shirani Rad AH (2009) Seed yield and water use efficiency of canola (Brassica napus L.) as affected by high temperature stress and supplemental irrigation. Agricultural Water Management. 96: 132-140.

14 . Gan Y, Angadi SV, Cutforth H, Potts D, Angadi VV and McDonald CL (2004) Canola and mustard response to short periods of temperature and water stress at different developmental stages. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 84: 697-704.

15 . Habekotte B (1997) Evaluation of seed yield determining factors of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) by means of crop growth modeling. Field Crops Research. 54: 137-151.

16 . Harper FR and Berkenkamp B (1975) Revised growth-stage key for Brassica campestris and Brassica napus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 55: 657-658.

17 . Johnson BL, McKay KR, Schneiter AA, Hanson BK, and Schatz BG (1995) Influence of planting date on canola and crambe production. Journal of Production Agriculture. 8: 594-599.

18 . Johnston AM, Tanaka DL, Miller PR, Brandt SA, Nielsen DC, Lafond GP and Riveland NR (2002) Oilseed crops for semiarid cropping systems in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal. 94: 231-240.

19 . Kirby EJM, Spink JH, Frost DL, Sylvester-Bradley R, Scott RK, Foulkes MJ, Clare RW and Evans EJ (1999) A study of wheat development in the field: analysis by phases. European Journal of Agronomy. 11: 63-82.

20 . Kirkland KJ and Jonson EN (2000) Alternative seeding dates (fall and April) affect Brassica napus canola yield and quality. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 80: 713-719.

21 . Kmec P, Weiss MJ, Milbrath LR, Schatz BG, Hanzel J, Hanson BK and Eriksmoen ED (1998) Growth analysis of crambe. Crop Science. 38: 108-112.

22 . Miralles DJ, Ferro BC and Slafer GA (2001) Developmental responses to sowing date in wheat, barley and rapeseed. Field Crops Research. 71: 211-223.

23 . Morrison MJ (1993) Heat stress during reproduction in summer rape. Canadian Journal of Botany. 71: 303-308.

24 . Nanda R, Bhargava SC, Tomar DPS and Rawson HM (1996) Phenological development of Brassica campestris, B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata grown in controlled environments and from 14 sowing dates in the field. Field Crops Research. 46: 93-103.

25 . Ruiz RA and Maddonni GA (2006) Sunflower seed weight and oil concentration under different post-flowering source-sink ratios. Crop Science. 46: 671-680.

26 . SAS Institute (1996) SAS/STAT user's guide, Version 6, 4th editions, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.

27 . Si P and Walton GH (2004) Determinants of oil concentration and seed yield in canola and Indian mustard in the lower rainfall areas of western Australia. Australian Journal of Agricaltural Research. 55: 367-377.

28 . Slafer GA and Rawson HM (1995) Rates and cardinal temperatures for processes of development in wheat: effects of temperature and thermal amplitude. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 22: 913-923.

29 . USDA (2014) Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA Office of global analysis. Available at: http://www.fas.usda.org.

30 . Wheeler TR, Hong TD, Ellis RH, Batts GR, Morison JLL and Hadley P (1996) The duration and rate of grain growth, and harvest index, of wheat (T. aestivum L.) in response to temperature and CO2. Journal of Experimental Botany. 47: 623-630.

31 . Zhang HP, Wang XY, You MZ and Liu CM (1999) Water-yield relations and water use efficiency of winter wheat in the North China plain. Irrigation Science. 19: 37-45.