تأثیر دمای پوشش گیاهی بر مقدار پروتئین و قندهای محلول، روغن و عملکرد سویا در مناطق کرج و مغان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری، گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات کنترل و گواهی بذر، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، کرج، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر دمای پوشش گیاهی بر مقدار پروتئین و قندهای محلول، روغن و عملکرد سویا در تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت، پژوهشی به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایۀ طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مناطق مغان و کرج در سال زراعی 92-1391 انجام گرفت. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل رقم (‘ویلیامز’ و ‘L17’) و تاریخ کاشت (15 اردیبهشت، 15 خرداد و 15 تیر) بود. نتایج نشان ‌داد که مقدار پروتئین محلول تحت تأثیر عوامل بررسی‌شده قرار نگرفت. در هر دو منطقه بیشترین درصد روغن (38/22 درصد) مربوط به تاریخ کاشت اول بود؛ همچنین تاریخ کاشت‌های دوم و سوم به‌ترتیب با 80/18 و 72/17 درصد در رده‌های بعدی قرار گرفتند. بیشترین مقدار قندهای محلول در منطقۀ کرج (17/73 میلی‌گرم بر گرم دانه) در تاریخ سوم و در منطقۀ مغان (12/72 میلی‌گرم بر گرم دانه) در تاریخ کاشت دوم حاصل شد. علاوه‌بر این بیشترین عملکرد (3679 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در هر دو منطقه در تاریخ کاشت دوم مشاهده شد، درحالی‌ که تاریخ کاشت‌های سوم و اول به‌ترتیب با عملکرد 3160 و 3000 کیلوگرم در هکتار در رده‌های بعدی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان ‌داد که هرچند درصد روغن دانه در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت نسبت به دو تاریخ کاشت دیگر بیشتر بود، به‌دلیل رویارویی مراحل غلاف‌بندی و پر شدن دانۀ سویا با دمای زیاد در این تاریخ کاشت، عملکرد و مقدار قندهای محلول کاهش یافت، بنابراین به‌منظور جلوگیری از بروز این مشکل، توصیه می‌شود که کاشت سویا در اردیبهشت انجام نگیرد و تا نیمۀ خرداد به تأخیر انداخته شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of canopy temperature on protein and sugar soluble content, oil and yield of soybean in Karaj and Moghan areas

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Sadeghi 1
  • Hossein Heidari sharifabad 2
  • Aidin Hamidi 3
  • Ghorban Nourmohammadi 2
  • Hamid Madani 4
1 PhD. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant professor, Department of Seed Control and Certification, Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Karaj, Iran.
4 Associate professor, Department of Agronomy, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to study the canopy temperature effect on protein and soluble sugar, oil percentage and yield of soybean in different planting dates, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in Karaj and Moghan areas during 2012-13. The studied treatments were included cultivar (‘Williams’ and ‘L17’) and planting date (5th of May, 5th of June and 5th of July). Results showed that the soluble protein content was not affected by studied factors. The highest oil percentage (22.38%) in both areas was related to first planting date, also second and third planting dates with 18.8 and 17.72% respectively were arranged in the next levels. In Karaj area, the maximum rate of soluble sugar (73.17 mg/g grain) was obtained at third planting date but in Moghan area, it (72.12 mg/g grain) was observed at second planting date. Furthermore the highest yield (3679 kg/ha) was attained at second planting date in both areas while also third and first planting dates with 3160 and 3000 kg/ha were putted in the next levels. Results showed that although the oil percentage at 5th of May planting date was higher than the other planting dates, but the rate of yield and soluble sugar were decreased at this planting date, because of encountering the pod set and grain filling stages with higher temperature. So, in order to prohibition of this problem occurrence, it is suggested that soybean doesn’t plant in May and it be postponed until the mid of June.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • heat stress
  • Raffinose
  • Reproductive growth
  • Seed filling
  • Sucrose
 

 

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