نقش تاریخ کاشت، مصرف قارچ‌کش بنومیل و پتاسیم سیلیکات در افزایش کیفیت بذر سویا رقم ‘ویلیامز’

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 مربی گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر تاریخ کاشت، محلول‌پاشی قارچ‌کش بنومیل و پتاسیم سیلیکات در بهبود کیفیت بذر سویا (رقم ‘ویلیامز’) در سال‌های 91-1390 در گرگان انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش در سال اول شامل تاریخ کاشت (31 فروردین، 23 اردیبهشت، 13 خرداد، 8 تیر و 31 تیر) و مصرف قارچ‌کش بنومیل در دو مرحلۀ R3 و R6 بود، و در سال دوم شامل تاریخ کاشت (11 اردیبهشت و 15 تیر)، مصرف قارچ‌کش بنومیل، مصرف سیلیکون (Si) و سیلیکون + بنومیل بود. سیلیکون به‌صورت پتاسیم سیلیکات محلول در آب در سه مرحله (V6، R1 و R4) و با غلظت 40 گرم در لیتر بر روی برگ‌ها محلول‌پاشی شد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش دمای هوا طی دورۀ پر شدن بذر (R5-R7) در تاریخ کاشت‌های زودهنگام مهم‌‌ترین عامل کاهش کیفیت بذر است. همچنین توده‌های بذری آلوده به Phomopsis sp. و Nigrospora sp. همبستگی منفی معناداری با جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر داشتند. تأخیر در کاشت از طریق کاهش دما طی دورۀ پر شدن بذر و نیز کاهش آلودگی به این دو بیمارگر سبب افزایش کیفیت بذر شد. از طرف دیگر، مصرف قارچ‌کش بنومیل و پتاسیم سیلیکات با کاهش آلودگی‌های قارچی در توده‌های بذری و افزایش جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر موجب بهبود کیفیت بذر شدند. بنابراین، تأخیر در کاشت رقم زودرس ویلیامز، محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم سیلیکات و نیز قارچ‌کش بنومیل در مراحل زایشی را می‌توان به‌عنوان راهکارهایی به‌منظور افزایش کیفیت بذر این رقم به کشاورزان و تولیدکنندگان بذر در گرگان توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of planting date, foliar application of benomyl fungicide and potassium silicate in increasing seed quality of soybean cv. Williams

نویسندگان [English]

  • morteza gorzin 1
  • farshid ghaderi-far 2
  • ebrahim zeinali 1
  • seyed esmaeil razavi 2
  • mohammad monyan ardestani 3
1 M.Sc. Student, College of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2 Research Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, College of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
3 . Instructor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of planting date, foliar application of benomyl fungicide and potassium silicate in improving the quality of soybean (cv. Williams) seed in Gorgan during 2011 and 2012. In the first year (2011), the experimental treatments were including planting dates (April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22) and foliar application of benomyl fungicide (used at R3 + R6 or unused) and in the second year (2012) were including planting dates (May 1 and July 7), foliar application of benomyl fungicide, silicon (Si) and silicon + benomyl. Water-soluble potassium silicate as silicon supply, in three stages (V6, R1 and R4), at the concentration of 40 grams per liter was sprayed on the leaves. The results showed that an increase in air temperature during seed filling period (R5-R7) in the early planting dates is the most important factor in reducing seed quality. Also, a significant negative correlation was observed between seed infection by Phomopsis sp. and Nigrospora sp. and seed germination and vigor. Delayed planting by reducing the temperature during seed filling period and seed infection by this pathogenic fungi, increased seed quality. Foliar application of benomyl fungicide and potassium silicate by reducing seed infection by pathogenic fungi, improved the quality of soybean seeds. Thus, the delay in planting of precocious cv. Williams, foliar application of potassium silicate and benomyl fungicide in reproductive stages can be advised as the strategies to enhance the seed quality of this cultivar to the farmers and seed producers in Gorgan.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fungicide
  • Phomopsis sp
  • Potassium Silicate
  • seed quality
  • temperature

 

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