تعیین آستانه خسارت اقتصادی خردل ‌وحشی در رقابت با چهار رقم گندم در منطقه گرگان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانَشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به‌­منظور تعیین آستانۀ خسارت اقتصادی چهار رقم گندم در تراکم­های مختلف خردل ­وحشی، آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایة بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار و در دو سال زراعی (90-1389 و 91-1390) در مزرعة تحقیقاتی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گرگان وابسته به مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ارقام گندم (‘آرتا’، ‘تجن’، ‘مغان’ و ‘مروارید’) و تراکم خردل ­وحشی (صفر، 4، 8، 16 و 32 بوته در متر مربع) بود. برای توصیف کاهش عملکرد ناشی از رقابت خردل ­وحشی از معادلة هذلولی کازنس استفاده شد. حداکثر تلفات عملکرد مربوط به تراکم­های بالای خردل ­وحشی بود و در بین ارقام، رقم ‘آرتا’ بیشترین و رقم ‘مروارید’ کمترین تلفات عملکرد را داشتند. شاخص‏های رقابتی محاسبه‌شده نشان داد که رقم ‘مروارید’ در شرایط رقابت با خردل وحشی، توانایی زیادی در جلوگیری از کاهش عملکرد خود داشت (تحمل زیاد) و از طرف دیگر، وزن خشک و مقدار بذر علف‏ هرز را نیز تا حد زیادی کاهش داد. با استفاده از مدل بسط‌داد‌‌ه‌شدة هذلولی کازنس و فرمول ادونوان، آستانۀ خسارت اقتصادی در دو سال زراعی برای ارقام گندم تراکم‌های 11/4، 68/3، 33/2 و 11/2 بوته در متر مربع به‌ترتیب در ارقام ‘مروارید’، ‘مغان’، ‘تجن’ و ‘آرتا’ در شرایط آب‌وهوایی گرگان تعیین شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of economic damage threshold of wild mustard in competition with four wheat cultivars at Gorgan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Rezvani 1
  • Jafar Asghari 2
  • Seyed MohammadReza Ehteshami 3
  • Behnam Kamkar 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rahst, Iran
2 Professor respectively, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rahst, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, respectively, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rahst, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

For determination of economic damage threshold of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in different densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.), experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station Gorgan during 2010-2012. The experimental design consisted of four randomized complete blocks in a factorial arrangement. The treatments comprised of factorial combination of wild mustard densities and wheat cultivars. Five different densities of wild mustard (zero, four, eight, 16 and 32 plants.m-2) and four wheat cultivars (‘Arta’, ‘Tajan’, ‘Mogan’ and ‘Morvarid’) were considered in all the replications. Cousens hyperbolic equation was used to describe the yield reduction due to wild mustard competition. The maximum yield reduction was associated with high densities of wild mustard and among the cultivars, ‘Arta’ and ‘Morvarid’ had the maximum and minimum yield reductions, respectively. Calculated competitive indexes indicated that ‘Morvarid’ cultivar in competition with wild mustard had a high capacity to prevent yield loss (high tolerance) and on the other hand, dry weight and seed amount of weed was also greatly reduced. Using extended Cousens hyperbolic model and Odonovan formula, economic damage threshold for wheat in two years determined in densities of 4.11, 3.68, 2.33 and 2.11 plant/m2 for ‘Morvarid’, ‘Moghan’, ‘Tajan’ and ‘Arta’ cultivars in climatic conditions of Gorgan.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Economic threshold
  • Wheat
  • Wild mustard
  • Yield loss functions
 

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