تأثیر کاربرد کود پتاسیم بر عملکرد سه رقم هندوانه در شرایط تنش شوری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، اصفهان

2 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، اصفهان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر پتاسیم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سه رقم هندوانه (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai) در شرایط شوری آب و خاک (به ترتیب 3/6 و 4/8 دسی زیمنس بر متر)، پژوهشی با استفاده از آزمایش کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی شهرستان اردستان واقع در استان اصفهان طی سال های 1386 و 1387 انجام شد. سه رقم هندوانه شامل ‘شوگر بیبی’، ‘چارلستون گری’ و ‘محبوبی’، کرت های اصلی و چهار سطح کود پتاسیم شامل صفر، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار کرت های فرعی را تشکیل دادند. مصرف کود پتاسیم در مقادیر دو و سه برابر نسبت به شرایط معمول (بدون تنش شوری)، به ترتیب موجب 8/24 و 5/18 درصد افزایش عملکرد در دو رقم ‘چارلستون گری’ و ‘شوگر بیبی’ شد. بالاترین مقدار عملکرد 39112 کیلوگرم در هکتار با کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم پتاسیم در هکتار در رقم ‘چارلستون گری’ به دست آمد. در تمام مقادیر کاربرد پتاسیم، افزایش تعداد میوه در رقم ‘شوگر بیبی’ و وزن میوه در رقم ‘چارلستون گری’ از دلایل اصلی افزایش عملکرد در این دو رقم محسوب می‌شدند. با افزایش استفاده از کود پتاسیم، نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم در برگ‌ها از 61/0 به 33/0 و در ساقه‌ها از 81/0 به 4/0 کاهش یافت. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد در شرایط تنش شوری، استفاده بیشتر از کود پتاسیم می‌تواند اثرات مضر شوری را کاهش دهد و عملکرد هندوانه را بهبود بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of potassium fertilizer on yield of three cultivars of watermelon under salt stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir hooshang Jalali 1
  • Peyman Jafari 2
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of K fertilizer on yield and yield components of three watermelon cultivars, a two-year study (2007-2008) was conducted in Ardestan Agricultural Research Center (Isfahan province) by using of split plot randomized based on complete block design in three replications. Three watermelon cultivars (‘Sugar baby’, ‘Charleston Grey’ and ‘Mahbubi’), were assigned as main plots and four K fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 100, and 150 kg K.ha-1) were assigned as subplots. Two and three times higher than consumption of K fertilizer (100 and 150 kg K.ha-1) in compared to normal conditions (without salinity), led to a 24.8 and 18.5 percent increase in yield of ‘Charlston Gray’ and ‘Sugar Baby’, respectively. The highest fruit yield (39112 kg.ha-1), was obtained using 150 kg K.ha-1 in ‘Charleston Gray’ cultivar. Potassium applications at all levels, increased fruit number in ‘Sugar Baby’ and fruit weight in ‘Charleston Gray’, were considered as the main reason for increasing yield. By increasing of K application, the ratio of Na/K in the leaves from 0.61 to 0.33 and in the stems from 0.81 to 0.4 was decreased. The results indicated that in saline conditions, higher levels of K fertilizers can reduce the deleterious effects of salinity and thus may improve watermelon yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leaf
  • Na/K ratio
  • Rind thickness
  • salt stress
  • Total soluble solid

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