عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In order to study the influence of nitrogen and different harvesting dates on sorghum yield, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications in 2010 at the Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil branch. Factors were: different harvesting dates in three levels containing, beginning of flowering, two and four weeks after beginning of flowering and nitrogen fertilizer in four levels (zero, 60, 120 and 180 kg N.ha-1). The results showed that maximum of forage yield was obtained by the plots which were applied 180 kg N.ha-1 in four weeks after beginning flowering and the least of it was in no application of nitrogen fertilizer in beginning of flowering. Means comparison showed that the highest nitrogen use efficiency was obtained by the plots which was applied 60 kg N.ha-1 in four weeks after beginning flowering and the least of it was in application of 180 kg N.ha-1 × beginninig of flowering. Maximum of stem and leaf protein was obtained in the highest of nitrogen fertilizer rates. It seems that in order to increasing of forage yield, should be applied 180 kg N.ha-1 × four weeks after beginning flowering in climate conditions of Ardabil. If the aim is to improve nitrogen use efficiency, then applying 60 kg N.ha-1 in four weeks after beginning flowering can be suggested.
1 . رضوانی مقدم پ (1369) اثر مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژنه بر ارزش غذایی، عملکرد و خصوصیات رشد چهار رقم سورگوم علوفهای. پایاننامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد. 142 ص.
2 . سیدشریفی ر. و حکمعلیپور س (1389) زراعت گیاهان علوفهای. انتشارات دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی و عمیدی تبریز. 585 ص.
3 . مقلولی م.، چایچی م. ر. حدادچی غ. ر. (1380) اثر کود ازته و تنش موقت خشکی در مراحل مختلف رشد بر خواص کمی و کیفی علوفه سورگوم. علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی . 8(2): 79-86.
4 . Amodu JT, Kallah MS, Onifade OS, Omokanye AT and Adeyinka IA (2001) The effect of harvesting at different growth stages on yield and quality of three late maturing pearl millet accessions in Northern Nigeria. Tropical Grassland. 35: 175-179.
5 . Ashiono GB, Gatuiku S, Mwangi P and Akuja TE (2005) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus application on growth and yield of dual-purpose sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Monech), E1291, in the dry highlands of Kenya. Asian Journal of Plant Science.
6 . Ayub M, Nadeem MA, Tanvir A, Tahir M and Khan RMA (2007) Interactive effect of different nitrogen levels and seeding rates on fodder yield and quality of pearl millet. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 44: 592-596.
7 . Bartle SJ and Klopfenstein TJ (1988) No chemical alternatives for improving crop residue feed quality: A review. Agriculture Production. 1: 356-362.
8 . Bennet WF, Tucker BB and Maunder AB (1990) Modern grain sorghum production: Ferstedition.
USA. Iowa State.
9 . Bhan S, Utam SK and Radhey S (1995) Effect of conservation of rainfed sorghum. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 23: 24-29.
10 . Birch CJ and Ash JD (1989) The response of forage sorghum to nitrogen fertilizer applied at planting
and after cutting. Australian Sorghum Workshop. Toowomba. Pp. 34-40.
11 . Brawand H and Hossner LR (1976) Nutrient content of sorghum leaves and grain as influenced by
long-term crop rotation and fertilizer treatment. Agronomy. 68: 227-280.
12 . Burton GW and Decane EH (1992) Effect of rate and method of applying different sources of nitrogen upon the yield and chemical composition of Bermuda grass. Agronomy. 44: 128-132.
13 . Buxton D (1996) Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors. Animal Feed Science Technology. 59: 37-49.
14 . Cassman KG, Peng S, Olk DC, Ladha JK, Reichardt W, Doberman A and Singh U (1998) Opportunities for increased nitrogen-use efficiency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crop Research. 56: 7-39.
15 . Cecelia LF, Amigot SL, Gaggiotti M, Rumero LA
and Basilico JC (2007) Global science, forage quality: Techniques for testing. 123 p.
16 . Dogget H (1988) Sorghum (2nd). Longman. Scinetific Technical. England.
17 . Eltelib HA, Hamad MA and Ali EE (2006) Effect
of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on growth, yield and quality of forage maize (Zea mays L.). Agronomy. 5: 513-518.
18 . Ericson NA (1993) Quality and storability in relation to fertigation of apple trees cv. Summerred. Acta. Horticulture. 326: 73-83.
19 . Firdous R, Gilani AH, Barque AR and Akram M (1996) Effect of stage of growth and cultivars on chemical composition of whole maize plant and its morphological fractions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 33: 54-58.
20 . Garavetta G, Cherney JH and Johnson JD (1990) Within-row spacing influences on diverse sorghum genotype. II. Dry matter, yield and forage quality. Agronomy. 82: 210-215.
21 . Gardner JC, Maranville JW and Paparozzi ET (1994) Nitrogen use efficiency among diverse sorghum cultivars. Crop Science. 34: 728-733.
22 . Glenn DM, Carey A, Bolton FE and Vavra M (1985) Effect of N fertilizer on protein content of grain straw and chaff tissues in soft white winter wheat. Agronomy. 77: 229-232.
23 . Goodroad LL and Jellum MD (1988) Effect of N fertilizer rate and soil pH on N efficiency in corn. Plant and Soil. 106: 85-89.
24 . Hagipaniota HJ and Helms RS (1989) Effect of nitrogen rate, nitrogen timing, and nitrification inhibitors on grain sorghum production in Arkansas. Communication Soil Science. 20: 2117-2136.
25 . Jarvis SC (1996) Future trends in nitrogen research. Plant and Soil. 181: 47-56.
26 . Jung GA, Lilly B, Shih SC and Reid RL (1994)
Studies with sudan grass. I. Effect of growth stage and level of nitrogen fertilizer upon yields of dry matter, estimated digestibility of energy, dry matter and protein, amino acid composition, and prussic acid potential. Agronomy. 56: 533-537.
27 . Karasu A, Oz M, Bayram G and Turgut I (2009)
The effect of nitrogen levels on forage yield and some attributes in some hybrid corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt.) cultivars sown as second crop for silage. Africian Journal of Agriculture Research. 4: 166-170.
28 . Keskin B, Akdeniz H, Yilmaz IH and Turan N (2005) Yield and quality of forage corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by cultivars and nitrogen rates. Agronomy. 4: 138-141.
29 . Khalid M, Ahmad I and Yub M (2003) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the fodder yield and quality of two sorghum cultivars (Sorghum bicolor L.). International Journal of Agriculture Biology. 1: 61-63.
30 . Khaitri YO and Vanderlip RL (1992) Grain sorghum and pearl millet response to date and rate of Planting. Agronomy. 84: 579-582.
31 . Man NV and Wiktorsson H (2003) Forage yield, nutritive value, feed intake and digestibility of three grass species as affected by harvest frequency. Tropical Grasslands. 37: 101-110.
32 . Minsoon RC and Cooper M (1998) Sorghum hybrid differences in grain yield and nitrogen concentration under low soil nitrogen availability. II. Hybrids with contrasting phenology. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49: 1277-86.
33 . Mir JJ, Westfall DG and Croissant RL (1996) Fertilizing grain and forage sorghum. Soil. Crop Series. No.10.540. Colorado State Univiversity. Cooperative Extension. Ft. Collins, CO.
34 . Moll RH, Kampreth EJ and Jackson WA (1982) Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Agronomy. 74: 562-564.
35 . Owen FG and Moline WJ (1970) Sorghum for forage. In: J. S. Wall and W. M. Ross (ed.) Sorghum production and utilization. West port Connecticut, Avi pub. co. Pp. 382-415.
36 . Pal MS, Singh OP and Malik HPS (1996) Nutrient uptake pattern and quality of sorghum L. Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes as influenced by fertility levels under rainfed condition. Tropical Agriculture. 73: 6-9.
37 . Quidel HA, Helms RS and Younis H (1989) Effect of nitrogen fertilization and plant populations on yield and quality of sweet sorghum. Field Crop (Abstract). 42: 1725-1725.
38 . Rahman M, Fukai S and Blamey FPC (2001)
Forage production and nitrogen uptake of forage sorghum, grain sorghum and maize as affected by cutting under different nitrogen levels. Proceeding of the Australian Agronomy Conference, Australian Society of Agronomy. 522 p.
39 . Raun WR and Johnson GV (1999) Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy. 91: 357-363.
40 . Reddy BVS, Reddy PS, Bidinger F and Blummel M (2003) Crop management factors influencing yield and quality of crop residues. Field Crops Research. 84: 57-77.
41 . Ruat MS and Ali M (1987) Productivity of forage sorghum as influenced due to nitrogen and phosphorus under rainfed condition on vertisol of Burdelkhand tract. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 21(3): 171-174.
42 . Sasha A and Bhatia K (1997) Effect of weather on response of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to long term fertilizer application through cluster analysis. Indian Journal of Agronomy Science. 67: 184-188.
43 . Siam HS, Abd-El-Kader GM and El-Alia HI (2008) Yield and yield components of maize as affected by different sources and application rates of nitrogen fertilizer. Research Journal of Agricultural Biology Science. 4(5): 399-412.
44 . Shedrick RD (1971) Traits of sorghum for forage the grass land research institute Hurley, male den heat. Berks, Technical Report. No. 9.
45 . Thurman RL, Stallcup OT and Reames CE (1960) Quality factors of sorghum as silage crops. University of Arkansas Bulletin. 632 p.
46 . Tariq MM, Ayub M, Elahi AH, Ahmad M, Chaudhary N and Nadeem MA (2011) Forage yield and some quality attributes of millet (Pennisetum americannum L.) hybrid under various regimes of nitrogen fertilization and harvesting dates. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(16): 3883-3890.
47 . Tolera A and Sundstol F (1999) Morphological fractions of maize stover harvested at different stages of grain maturity and nutritive value of different fractions of the stover. Animal Feed Science Technology. 81: 1-16.
48 . Twidwell EK, Johnson KD, Cherney JH and Violence JJ (1988) Forage quality and digestion kinetics of switchgrass herbage and morphological components. Crop Science. 28: 778-782.
49 . Wilman D and Rezvani Moghaddam B (1998) In vitro digestibility and neutral detergent fibre and lignin content of plant parts of nine forage species. Agricultural Science. Cambridge. 131: 51-58.