برآورد نیازهای دمایی شش رقم تجاری زردآلوی منطقه شاهرود در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و مزرعه‌ای

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود - ایران

چکیده

در تحقیق حاضر، نیاز سرمایی و نیاز گرمایی گل‌دهی شش رقم تجاری زردآلوی منطقه شاهرود به نام‌های محلی جعفری، قوامی، جهانگیری، خیاری، خیوه ای و رجبعلی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و مزرعه‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. رقم رجبعلی و تا حدودی رقم جهانگیری در شرایط آزمایشگاهی در 500 ساعت دمای چهار درجه سانتی‌گراد شروع به گلدهی کردند. بقیه ارقام به جز خیاری در 750 ساعت گلدهی خود را آغاز کردند. رقم خیاری در 1000 ساعت شروع به گلدهی کرد. با توجه به اختلاف کم تاریخ گلدهی ارقام مورد بررسی، نتایج مزرعه‌ای نشان دهنده اختلاف کم ارقام از نظر نیاز سرمایی بر حسب مدل‌های مختلف بود، اما میزان نیاز سرمایی اندازه گیری شده بر اساس مدل‌های مختلف تفاوت‌های قابل توجهی داشتند. بر اساس مدل ساعات سرمایی ارقام حدود 1400 ساعت نیاز سرمایی داشتند، درحالی که بر اساس مدل یوتا، کارولینای شمالی و نیاز سرمایی کم این میزان برای ارقام مورد بررسی به ترتیب حدود 1000، 740 و 770 واحد بود. نیاز سرمایی بر اساس مدل دینامیکی برای همه ارقام 71 قسمت بود. میزان نیاز گرمایی برای ارقام از 1829 درجه ساعت در رقم خیوه ای تا 3387 درجه ساعت در رقم جعفری متفاوت بود. ارقام از لحاظ شروع گلدهی اختلاف چندانی با یکدیگر نداشتند، اما بین طول مدت گلدهی آن‌ها حدود یک هفته اختلاف وجود داشت. در مکان‌هایی که نیاز سرمایی به خوبی برآورده می‌شود، تفاوت‌ها در زمان شکوفایی ارقام کم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of temperature requirements of six apricot cultivars under lab and field conditions in Shahrood

نویسنده [English]

  • Mehdi Rezaei
چکیده [English]

In this research, chilling and heating requirements of six local cultivars of apricot (Jafari, Ghavami, Jahangiri, Khiari, Khiveaee and Rajabali) were evaluated under field and lab conditions. Under lab condition, ‘Rajabali’ and in some extent ‘Johangiri’ began flowering after 500 hours in 4°C. Other cultivars except ‘Khiari’ flowered at 750 h. ‘Khiari’ flowered at 1000 h. In field, due to little difference of flowering time among cultivars, there was a low difference in chilling requirement among cultivars in all models. Calculation of chilling requirements based on chilling hours was around 1400 h while based on Utah, North Carolina and Low chilling models was 1000, 740 and 770 unit, respectively. Chilling requirement in all cultivars was 71 portions based on dynamic model calculation. Amount of heating requirement ranged from 1829 growth degree hours (GDH) in ‘Khivea’ to 3387 GDH in ‘Jafari’. Although little differences exist in flowering onset of cultivars, the differentiation of flowering period among cultivars was around one week. Cultivars showed little differences in flowering onset in locations they meet their chilling requirement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • apricot
  • Chilling Requirement
  • Flowering date
  • flowering period
  • Heat unit

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