عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to study the effect of methanol and humic acid on physiological traits, yield and water use efficiency in plant of chicory under drought stress conditions, a split factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in a field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in year of 2015. Irrigation at three levels (irrigation after 70, 140 and 210 mm cumulative evaporation from the evaporation pan) as the main factor and methanol spray at two levels (zero and 21 percentage volume) and humic acid with two levels (zero and 10 L ha-1 ) were as sub factors. The studied traits were chlorophyll meter, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, dry yields of root, stem and leaf dry, dry yield of total, root to stem and leaf ratio, water use efficiency of root, stem and leaf and total. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced all physiological and yield traits (except root to stem and leaf ratio) and increased water use efficiency. Application of methanol increased all of the traits (except yield and water use efficiency of root). Application of 10 L ha-1 humic acid increased all the traits (except for the ratio of root to air organs). In general, based on the results of this study, irrigation treatment after 140 mm evaporation from the pan and spraying methanol with 21 percentage volume and humic acid at 10 liters per hectare can be used to achieve yield acceptable for the Chicory plant in the Birjand region.
Aghlmand, S., Esmaielpour, B., Abasszadeh Dahaji, P., Soltani Toularoud, A. A. & Jalilvand, P. (2016). Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid on growth and physiological parameters of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under water deficit conditions. Water and Soil Science, 26(3), 51-66. (in Persian)
Bahman, S., Mehrafarin, A. & Naghdi Badi, H. (2017). Influence of gibberellic acid, indole butyric acid, and methanol on morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits in Thymus vulgaris L. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 16(61),33-44. (in Persian)
Baradaran Firouzabadi, M., Parsaeiyan, M. & Baradaran Firouzabadi, M. (2017). Agronomic and physiological response of Nigella sativa L. to ascorbate and methanol foliar application in water deficit stress. Plant Ecophysiology, 30, 13-27. (in Persian)
Ben Ahmed, Ch., Ben Rouina, B., Sensoy, S., Boukhris, M. & Ben Abdallah, F. (2009). Changes in gas exchange, proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67(2), 345-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.07.006
Buasri, A., Chaiyut, N. & Loryuenyong, V. (2012). Transesterification of waste frying oil for synthesizing biodiesel by KOH supported on coconut shell activated carbon in packed bed reactor. Science Asia, 38, 283-288. https://doi.org/ 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2012.38.283
Chamani, E., Bonyadi, M. & Ghanbari, A. (2015). Effects of salicylic acid and humic acid on vegetative indices of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.). Journal of Horticultural Science, 29(4), 631-641. (in Persian)
Fall, R. & Benson, A. A. (1996). Leaf methanol, the simplest natural product from plants. Trends Plant Sciences, 1(9), 296-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(96)88175-0
Gholami, H., Saharkhiza, M. J., Raouf fard, F., Askarghani, D. & Nadaf, F. (2018 a). Humic acid and vermicompost increased bioactive components, antioxidant activity and herb yield of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 14, 286–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2018.03.021
Gholami, H., Raouffard, F., Saharkhiza, M. J. & Askarghani, D. (2018 b). Yield and physicochemical properties of inulin obtained from Iranian chicory roots under vermicompost and humic acid treatments. Industrial Crops & Product, 123, 610-616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.07.031
Hossinzadeh, S. R., Salimi, A., Ganjeali, A. & Ahmadpour, R. (2013). Effects of foliar application of methanol on photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under dought stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 5(18), 115-132. (in Persian)
Jahan, M., Ghalenoee, Sh., Khamooshi, A. & Amiri, M. B. (2015). Evaluation of some agroecological characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by simultaneous application of water-saving superabsorbent hydrogel in soil and foliar application of humic acid under different irrigation intervals in a lowinp. Journal of Horticulture Science, 29(2), 240-254. (in Persian)
Kakulvand, R., Fallah, S., and Abassi Sourki, A. (2017). Effects of species competition on photosynthetic pigments, prolin relative water content, and essence fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) under drought stress conditions in intercropping system. Journal of Plant Process and Function Iranian Society of Plant Physiology, 6(19), 255-270. (in Persian)
Kamalakar, K., Rajak, A. K., Prasad, R. B. N. & Karuna, M. S. L. (2013). Rubber seed oil based biolubricant basestocks: A potential source for hydraulic oils. Industrial Crops Production, 51, 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.08.058
Khosravi, M. T., Mehrafarin, A., Naghdibadi, H., Hajiaghaee, R. & Khosray, E. (2011). Effect of methanol and ethanol application on yield of Echinacea purpurea L. in Karaj region. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 2(2), 121-128. (in Persian)
Kordi, S., Saidi, M. & Ghanbari, F. (2013). Induction of drought tolerance in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by salicylic acid. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 2, 18-26.
Lee, H. S., Madhaiyan, M., Kim, C. W., Choi, S. J. & Chung, T. M. (2006). Physiological enhancement of early growth of rice seedling (Oryza sativa L.) by production of phytohormone of N2-fixing methylotrophic isolated. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 42(5), 402-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-006-0083-8
Mehmood, N., Zubair, M., Rizwan, K., Muhammad Shahid, N. R. & Ahmad, V. U. (2012). Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cichorium intybus seeds extract and various organic fractions. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11(4), 1145-1151. (in Persian)
Mirakhori, M., Paknejad, F., Moradi, F., Ardakani, M., Zahedi, H. & Nazeri, P. (2009). Effect of drought stress and methanol on yield and yield components of soybean (L17). American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 5(4), 162-169. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2009.162.169
Mohammadipour, E., Golchin, A., Mohammadi, J., Negahdar, N. & Zarchini, N. (2012). Effect of humic acid on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Annals of Biological Research, 3(11), 5095- 5098.
Mousavi, S. Gh. (2013). Investigating the effect of different levels of nitrogen and irrigation on quantitative and qualitative performance of selected medicinal plants in birjand region. Final report of research project, Islamic Azad University of Birjand. (in Persian)
Munne-Bosch, S., Penuelas, J. & Llusia, J. (2007). A deficiency in salicylic acid alters isoprenoid accumulation in water-stressed NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plant Science, 172, 756-762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2006.12.005
Nonomura, A. M. & Benson, A. A. (1992). The path of carbon in photosynthesis: Improved crop yield with methanol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 9794-9798.
Oveysi, M. & Ghoshchi, F. (2012). Study of humic acid role on reduction of water deficit stress effects on crops. Agriculture and Sustainable Development, 43, 12-16. (in Persian)
Rafiei, M., Karimi, M., Noormohamadi, G. & Nadian, H. A. (2009). Effects of drought stress and zinc and phosphorus rates on some morphological traits and physiological of grain corn. Crop Physiology Journal, 1(1), 58-66.(in Persian)
Saedi, F., Mosavi Nik, M. & Rahimian Boger, A. R. (2017). Effects of different fertilizers on the morphophysiological characteristics of chicory under drought stress. Agricultural Crop Management, 19(1), 119-132. (in Persian)
Salehi, B., Bagherzadeh, A. & Ghasemi, M. )2010(. Effect of humic acid on growth, yield and yield components traits of three variety of Lycopersicon esculentum L. Agroecology Journal, 2(4), 640-647. (in Persian)
Sani, B. & Aliabadi Farahani, H. (2010). Effect of P2O5 on coriander induced by AMF under water deficit stress. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 2(4), 52-58.
Sapeta, H., Miguel Costa, J., Lourenco, T., Maroco, J., van der Linde, P. & Oliveira, M. )2013(. Drought stress response in Jatropha curcas: Growth and physiology. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 85, 76-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.08.012
Seckler, D., Molden, D. & Sakthivadivel, R. (2002). The concept of efficiency in water resource management and policy. In water productivity in agriculture: Limits and opportunities for improvement. Ed. Kijne, J. W. Wallingford. UK. CABI.
Sodaiizadeh, H., Shamsaie, M., Tajamoliyan, M., Mirmohammady maibody, A.M. & Hakimzadeh, M. A. (2016). The effects of water stress on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Satureja Hortensis. Journal of Plant Process and Function Iranian Society of Plant Physiology, 5(15), 1-12. (in Persian)
Zarei, Gh., Shamsi Mahmoodabadi, H., Tabatabaei, S. A. & Mohtaram, S. A. (2014). Effect of sowing date and plant density on yield of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 104, 136-141. (in Persian)