تأثیر پلیمر سوپر جاذب و کود دامی بر کارآیی مصرف آب ارقام گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در رژیم های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر پلیمر سوپر جاذب و کود دامی بر کارآیی مصرف آب ارقام گندم در شرایط مختلف کم آبی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 97-1396 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی ساعتلوی استان آذربایجان غربی اجرا شد. فاکتور اول آبیاری در دو سطح شرایط مطلوب و تنش خشکی انجام شد و فاکتور دوم شامل سوپرجاذب به میزان 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار، کود دامی به میزان 40 تن در هکتار، مصرف توأم آنها و عدم مصرف کود (شاهد) و فاکتور سوم شامل سه رقم گندم آبی (میهن، حیدری و زرینه) بود. نتایج نشان داد تنش خشکی در مقایسه با آبیاری مطلوب، عملکرد دانه، شاخص کلروفیل، شاخص برداشت و محتوای نسبی آب برگ را به‌ترتیب به‌میزان 32، 22، 24 و 19 درصد کاهش داد. بیشترین دمای برگ (10/33 درجه سانتی‌گراد) در شرایط تنش خشکی و عدم مصرف کود و کمترین دمای برگ (99/21 درجه سانتی‌گراد) در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و مصرف توأم سوپر جاذب و کود دامی به‌دست آمد. بیشترین کارآیی مصرف اقتصادی آب (34/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) و کارآیی مصرف بیولوژیک آب (10/4 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) در شرایط تنش خشکی و مصرف توأم سوپر جاذب و کود دامی مشاهده شد. در بین ارقام مورد مطالعه، رقم میهن از نظر عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت و محتوای نسبی آب برگ در هر دو شرایط رطوبتی برتر از دو رقم دیگر بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و مصرف توأم سوپر جاذب و کود دامی به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer on water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under different irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Gholinezhad 1
  • Ali Reza Eyvazi 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant, Department of Agricultural Research and Natural Resources of West Azarbaijan province, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer on water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under different water deficit conditions, an experimental was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of West-Azerbaijan (Saatlo station) during 2017-2018 cropping seasons. The first factor was irrigation in two levels: normal and drought stress conditions. The second factor was super absorbent polymer 200 kg ha-1, manure fertilizer 40 ton ha-1, dual their application and control (non-application fertilizer) and the third factor included wheat cultivars (Mihan, Heidari and Zarineh). The results indicated that drought stress compared to normal irrigation reduced grain yield, chlorophyll index, harvest index and relative water content about 32, 22, 24 and 19 percent, respectively. The highest leaf temperature (33.10 °C) was obtained under drought stress and non-application fertilizer application and the lowest leaf temperature (21.99 °C) under favorable irrigation conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer. The highest economical water use efficiency (1.34 kg m-3) and biological water use efficiency (4.10 kg m-3) were observed under drought stress conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer. Mihan was superior cultivar for grain yield, harvest index and relative water content among cultivars under two different moisture conditions. The highest grain and biological yields were obtained under favorable irrigation conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Grain yield"
  • "ion leakage"
  • "leaf temperature"
  • "proline"
  • "relative water content"
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