پاسخ فیزیولوژیک ارقام نخود به آبیاری تکمیلی و استفاده از پلیمر سوپر جاذب در شرایط کشت دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

4 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی لرستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، خرم‌آباد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی پاسخ‏های فیزیولوژیک ارقام نخود به آبیاری تکمیلی و سطوح مختلف پلیمر سوپرجاذب آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال‏ زراعی 1394-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی شهرستان خرم آباد به اجرا درآمد. زمان آبیاری تکمیلی در سه سطح (بدون آبیاری تکمیلی، 50 درصد گلدهی و 50 درصد پرشدن دانه) به عنوان عامل اصلی و ارقام (آرمان، آزاد و گریت) و پلیمر سوپر جاذب (صفر، 100 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به صورت فاکتوریل در درون کرت‏های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد انجام آبیاری تکمیلی و استفاده از پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب موجب کاهش قندهای محلول و درصد پروتئین دانه شده و در مقابل قندهای نامحلول، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b و کلروفیل کل در گیاه نخود افزایش پیدا کرد. در بین مراحل آبیاری تکمیلی آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی موجب افزایش 74 درصدی عملکرد دانه نسبت به کشت دیم شد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت از رقم گریت همراه با آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله گلدهی و کاربرد 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپر جاذب به ترتیب با میانگین‏های 2179 کیلوگرم در هکتار، 4012 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 3/54 درصد به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که در تمام سطوح آبیاری تکمیلی استفاده از پلیمر سوپر جاذب موجب بهبود شرایط رشد گیاه و در نتیجه افزایش معنی‏دار عملکرد دانه می‏شود و با افزایش مصرف پلیمر سوپر جاذب در تیمارهای آبیاری تکمیلی این افزایش بیشتر نیز می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Physiological responses of chickpea cultivars to supplemental irrigation and super-absorbent polymer using under rainfed farming system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azimeh Bagheri 1
  • Ataalah Siadat 2
  • Ahmad Koochekzadeh 3
  • Mohammad Reza Moradi Telavat 3
  • Masoud Rafiee 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Plant Production and Genetic, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetic, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetic, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of seed and plant improvement Research, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Khorramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the physiological responses of chickpea cultivars to supplemental irrigation and super-absorbent polymer use, an experiment was conducted in 2015 using a split factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design in the research farm of Khorramabad Agricultural Research Center. Factors were supplemental irrigation times (without supplemental irrigation, irrigation in 50 percent of flowering and irrigation in 50 percent of seed filling) as main factor and cultivars (Arman, Azad and Greet) and super absorbent polymer (zero, 100 and 200 kg/ha) in the sub plots. The result showed that the supplemental irrigation and super absorbent polymer reduced soluble carbohydrates and seed protein and increased insoluble carbohydrates, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Supplemental irrigation in 50 percent of flowering satge increased 74 percent of seed yield compared to dry land condition. The highest seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were obtained from Greet cultivar with supplemental irrigation at 50 percent of flowering stage and application of 200 kg/ha super absorbent polymer, with the averages 2179 kg/ha, 4012 kg/ha and 54.3 percent, respectively. The results showed that at all levels of supplemental irrigation, the use of superabsorbent polymer improves plant growth conditions and, consequently, significantly increased seed yield. This will increase further by increasing the consumption of super absorbent polymer within supplementary irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll a
  • chlorophyll b
  • seed protein
  • soluble carbohydrates
  • unsoluble carbohydrates
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