تأثیر کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی نیتروژن دار و فسفردار بر رشد، عملکرد و درصد اسیدهای چرب گلرنگ درکشت مخلوط با باقلا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

4 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف مطالعه اثر کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی بر خصوصیات رشدی، عملکرد و درصد اسیدهای چرب گیاه گلرنگ در کشت مخلوط با باقلا به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تبریز در دو سال زراعی 1393-1394 و 1394-1395 انجام شد. تیمارهای کشت خالص گلرنگ، خالص باقلا و مخلوط گلرنگ و باقلا با نسبت 1:1 و 2:1 به عنوان عامل اول و مصرف کود در چهار سطح عدم کاربرد کود، کاربرد 100 درصد کود شیمیایی (اوره+ سوپرفسفات تریپل)، مصرف تلفیقی 30 و60 درصد کود شیمیایی بعلاوه کودهای زیستی (ازتوبارور 1 و فسفات بارور 2) به عنوان عامل دوم بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین شاخص کلروفیل برگ، ارتفاع و تعداد شاخه فرعی در بوته به سیستم کشت مخلوط 1:1 و مصرف تلفیقی 60 درصد کود شیمیایی بعلاوه کودهای زیستی تعلق داشت. همچنین کاربرد تلفیقی کود زیستی بعلاوه 60 درصد کود شیمیایی، عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن و اسیدهای چرب لینولئیک و لینولنیک را افزایش داد. بیشترین میزان نسبت برابری زمین در سیستم کشت مخلوط 1:1 به همراه مصرف تلفیقی کود زیستی بعلاوه 60 درصد کود شیمیایی حاصل شد. افت عملکرد واقعی کل در هر دو سال زراعی در همه کشت‌های مخلوط بزرگتر از صفر بدست آمد که نشان می‌دهد سیستم کشت مخلوط نسبت به خالص نتیجه مثبتی بر عملکرد دانه داشت. در مجموع برای تولید گلرنگ با کمیت و کیفیت بهتر، کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای زیستی با شیمیایی در شرایط کشت مخلوط با باقلا، مناسب به نظر می رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of nitrogenous and phosphorous biological and chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and fatty acid compositions of Safflower intercropped with Faba bean

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahmoodreza saeidi 1
  • YaghoubY Raei 2
  • Rouhollah Amini 3
  • Bahman Pasban Eslam 4
  • Asal Rohi Saralan 1
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Division, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This research was investigated to study the application of chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and fatty acids composition of safflower intercropped with faba bean based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of University of Tabriz during two growing seasons of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Intercropping ratios of safflower and faba bean including 1:1, 2:1, and their sole cropping and four levels of fertilizers including no fertilizer, 100 percent chemical fertilizer, 30 percent and 60 percent chemical fertilizer + biofertilizer (Azoto barvar 1 and phosphate barvar 2) were evaluated. Results showed that the highest Chlorophyll content, plant height and number of branch per plant were devoted to safflower/faba bean intercropping (1:1) with application of 60 percent chemical plus biological fertilizers. Also, integrated use of chemical and biological fertilizers caused the increasing of seed yield, oil content (33.81 percent) and linoleic (76.97 percent) and linolenic (0.32 percent) fatty acids. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.41) was achieved in intercropped plants (1:1) with integrated use of 60 percent chemical and biological fertilizers. For both years, total actual yield loss for all intercrops was more than zero, which indicates the positive advantage of intercropping over the pure one. Overall, intercropping (safflower/faba bean) with integrated use of the chemical and biological fertilizers, can recommend as an appropriate manner for the production of safflower with a better quality and quantity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Faba bean
  • Faty acid composition
  • intercropping
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • Oil percent
  • Safflower
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