تأثیر سیستم های خاک ورزی و بقایای گیاهی بر کارایی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن در کشت مخلوط ذرت و لوبیا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آگرو اکولوژی، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شهرکرد، ایران

4 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی کارآیی جذب و مصرف و شاخص برداشت نیتروژن در کشت مخلوط ذرت و لوبیا تحت تاثیر سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی و سطوح بقایای کاه و کلش گندم، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی چهارتخته شهرستان شهرکرد در سال زراعی 96-1395 انجام شد. سیستم های خاک ورزی در 3 سطح (رایج، کم خاک ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی) به عنوان عامل اصلی، مدیریت بقایای گیاهی در چهار شامل (صفر، 30، 60 و 90 درصد عملکرد کاه و کلش گندم) به عنوان عامل فرعی و کشت مخلوط در پنج سطح (کشت خالص ذرت، کشت خالص لوبیا، نسبت 2:2، 3:1 و 1:3 ذرت و لوبیا) به عنوان عامل فرعی فرعی مدنظر قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان جذب نیتروژن در دانه و زیست توده به ترتیب برای ذرت و لوبیا در تیمار بدون خاک‌ورزی، 60 درصد بقایای گندم و کشت خالص هر دو گیاه مشاهده شد. کارایی زراعی استفاده از نیتروژن در کشت مخلوط کمتر از کشت خالص هر دو گیاه بود. بیشترین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در کشت مخلوط ذرت و لوبیا با نسبت‌های 3:1 و 2: 2 به دست آمد که بیانگر برتری آشکار سیستم کشت مخلوط بر کشت خالص است. از این‌رو کشت مخلوط ذرت و لوبیا می‌تواند به مقدار شایان توجهی کارایی مصرف نیتروژن را بهبود بخشد و از این طریق با کاهش مصرف کودهای نیتروژنه نقش موثری بر پایداری تولید بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی در درازمدت به همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Tillage System and Plant Residue on Nitrogen Uptake and Use Efficiency in Corn and Bean Intercropping Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Akbari 1
  • Mehdi Dahmardeh 2
  • Ali Morshdi 3
  • Ahmad Ghanbari 4
  • Soror Khoramdel 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Agro Ecology, Department of Agro Ecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agro Ecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil and Water Research, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Shahrekord, Iran
4 . Professor, Department of Agro Ecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
5 Associate Professor, Department of Agrotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the N uptake and N utilization efficiency and nitrogen harvest index in corn and bean intercropping under the influence of tillage systems and residues of wheat an experiment was performed using split- split plots based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in agricultural research field of Shahrekord during growing season of 2016–2017. The tillage systems with three levels (conventional, minimum, and no tillage) and four levels of crop residue (0, 30, 60, and 90% of straw yield of wheat) and five intercropping patterns including corn monoculture, bean monoculture, corn and bean ratio with 2:2, 3:1 and 1:3 were considered as main, sub and sub-sub plots, respectively. The results showed that the highest nitrogen content in seed and biomass of both crops under conditions of use of 60% of plant residues, no- tillage systems and their monocultures. Agronomic use nitrogen efficiency in intercropping was lower than their monocultures. The highest N utilization efficiency was obtained in 3: 1 and 2: 2, indicating a clear superiority of intercropping than monoculture. Therefore, intercropping corn and bean can improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency. By decreasing nitrogen fertilizer application, it can play an important role in the long-term sustainability of agro-ecosystems production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • conservation tillage
  • Cropping system
  • Nitrogen harvest index
  • Soil N deficit
  • Soil degradation
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