عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on the seed yield and chemical composition of essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of urmia, Iran during growing season of 2015-2016. The first factor included of three Landraces (Urmia, Hamdan and Germany) and second factor included of four biofertilizers as: complete biofertilizers (consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur supplier bacteria), mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices), integrated Bacterial biofertilizers with mycorrhizal fungi and control treatment. Results indicated that application of biofertilizers enhanced the seed yield, colonization percentage, nutrients absorption, essential oil content, essential oil yield and essential oil composition. Among treatments, combined usage of biofertilizers showed that great increasing in studied traits than individual consumption. Also, The effect of landrace on all studied quantitative and qualitative traits was significant except for seed nitrogen. Seed yield of the German landrace were higher than Hamedan and Urmia landrace. The main components of the essential oils fennel were; Anethol, Fenchone, Limonene and p-Allylanisole. The highest amount of anethole was found in Urmia landrace in inoculated with mycorrhiza and bacterial biofertilizer. In general, the results showed that the use of biofertilizers had a significant effect on the improvement of quality and quantity of fennel traits.
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