عنوان مقاله [English]
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on growth and macroelements contents of two olive varieties in soilless culture medium. In the research, one-year old saplings of two olive varieties, ‘Zard’ and ‘Mission’, were subjected to different salinity levels induced by NaCl including 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m-1 for 5 months. Based on the results, total dry weights of the varieties were decreased at 16 dSm-1 compared to control up to 63 and 85% at ‘Mission’ and ‘Zard’, respectively. Also, a 25% reduction in total dry weight was observed under salinities of 7 and 3.6 dSm-1 for ‘Mission’ and ‘Zard’, respectively. Salinity was decreased the concentrations of macronutrients and increased the concentrations of Na and Cl in roots and leveas of the both varieties. Compared to control, Na and Cl concentrations in leaves and roots was increased under salinity of 16 dS/m-1 at 1660 and 679% for Na and 1069 and 506% for Cl. In all salinity levels, Na and Cl concentrations in the leaves and roots of 'Zard' variety were more than that of 'Mission'. Thesa data demonstrated that ‘Mission’ has a more salinity tolerance than ‘Zard’, and could be used as a salt-tolerant variety for cultivation under salinity conditions. The defence mechanisms of ‘Mission’ are restricting in absorbtion and translocation of Na to aerial parts and accumulate a proper concentration of K in Leaves.
1 . امامی ع (1375) روش های تجزیه گیاه. جلد اول. شماره 982 . موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب. کرج. ایران.
2 . اورعی م، طباطبایی س ج، فلاحی ا و ایمانی ع (1388) اثرات تنش شوری و پایه بر رشد، شدت فتوسنتز غلظت عناصر غذایی و سدیم درخت بادام. علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی). 23(2) : 140-131.
3 . صادقی ح (1389) مدیریت باغهای زیتون. دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری. ساری. ایران. 277 صفحه.
4 . Al-Absi K Qrunfleh M and Abu-Sharar T (2003) Mechanism of salt tolerance of two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars as related to electrolyte concentration and toxicity. Acta Horticulture 618: 281–290.
5 . Al-Absi KM Al-Nasir FM and Mahadeen AY (2009) Mineral content of three olive cultivars irrigated with treated industrial wastewater. Agricultural Water Management 96: 616–626.
6 . Bartolini G Mazuelos C and Troncoso A (1991) Influence of Na2SO4 and NaCl salts on survival growth and mineral composition of young olive plants in inert sand culture. Advances in Horticultural Science. 5: 73–76.
7 . Ben-Gal A (2011) Salinity and Olive: From physiological response to orchard management. Israel Journal of Plant Science. 59: 15-28.
8 . Chartzoulakis K (2005) Salinity and olive: growth salt tolerance photosynthesis and yield. Agriculture Water Managemet. 78: 108–121.
9 . Chartzoulakis K Loupassaki M and Bertaki M (2002) Effects of NaCl salinity on growth ion content and CO2 assimilation rate of six olive cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 96: 235–247.
10 . Demiral MA (2005) Comparative response of two olive cultivars to salinity. Turk J Agric For 29:267-274.
11 . Garcia-Sanchez F and Syvertsen JP (2006) Salinity tolerance of Cleopatra mandarin and carrizo citrange citrus rootstock seedlings is affected by CO2 enrichment during growth. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 131: 24- 31.
12 . Grattan SR (2002) Irrigation water salinity and crop production. Universiy of California. ANR Publication. 8066.
13 . Grattan SR and Grieve CM (1999) Salinity-mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops.Scientia Horticulturae. 78: 127–157.
14 . Gucci R Lombardini L and Tattini M (1997) Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea L) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity. Tree Physiology 17: 13–21.
15 . Hoagland DR and Arnon DS (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Expriment. Statation Publications. 374: 1–32.
16 . Karimi E Abdolzadeh A and Sadeghipour HR (2009) Increasing salt tolerance in Olive, Olea europaea L. plants by supplemental potassium nutrition involves changes in ion accumulation and anatomical attributes. International Journal of Plant Production 3(4): 1735-6814
17 . Kchaou H Larbi A Gargouri K Chaieb M and Masallem M (2010) Assesment of tolerance to NaCl salinity of five olive cultivars based on growth characteristics and Na and Cl exclusion mechanisms. Scientia Horticulture. 124: 306-315.
18 . Khoshgoftarmanesh AH and Siadat H (2002) Mineral nutrition of vegetables and horticultural crops in saline conditions. Education and Publishing Center of Agriculture.
19 . Khoshgoftarmanesh AH Shariatmadari H Karimian N, Kalbasi M and Khajehpour MR (2004) Zinc efficiency of wheat cultivars grown on a saline calcareous soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27: 1953–1962.
20 . Khoshgoftarmanesh AH and Naeini MR (2008) Salinity Effect on Concentration Uptake and Relative Translocation of Mineral Nutrients in Four Olive Cultivars. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31: 1243–1256.
21 . Lea-Cox J and Syvertsen JP (1993) Salinity reduce water use and nitrate- N-use efficiency of citrus. Annals of Botany. 72:47-54.
22 . Lolaei A AliRezaei M and Kaviani B (2012) Effects of salinity and calcium on the growth ion concentration and yield of Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. Annals of Biological Research 3 (10):4675-4679.
23 . Loupassaki MH Chartzoulakis KS Digalaki NB and Androulakis II (2002) Effects of salt stress on concentration of nitrogen phosphorus potassium calcium magnesium and sodium in leaves shoots and roots of six olive cultivars. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 25: 2457–2482.
24 . Maas EV (1993) Salinity and citriculture. Tree Physiology. 12: 195–216.
25 . Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Second ed. Academic Press, London.
26 . Melgar JCBenlloch M and Femandez-Escobar R (2006) Calcium increases sodium exclusion in olive plants. Scientia Horticulture. 109:303-305.
27 . Munns R and Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: 651-681.
28 . Mousavi A Lessani H, Babalar M, Talaie A and Fallahi E (2008) Influence of salinity on cholorophyll leaf water potential total soluble sugars and mineral nutrients in two young olive cultivars. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 31: 1906–1916.
29 . Nabila EK, Abourayya MS and El-Sheikh M.H (2013) Effect of salinity treatments on mineral content of manzanello and picual olive leaves shoots and roots. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 9(1): 258-262.
30 . Naeini MR, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH and Fallahi E (2007) Partitioning of chlorine sodium and potassium and shoot growth of three pomegranate cultivars under different levels of salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29(10): 1835–1843.
31 . Naeini MR, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Lessani H and Fallahi E (2004) Effects of NaCl-induced salinity on mineral nutrients and soluble sugars in three commercial cultivars of pomegranate. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 38: 1319–1326.
32 . Naeini MR, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH and Fallahi E (2006) Partitioning of chlorine sodium and potassium and shoot growth of three pomegranate cultivars under different levels of salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29: 1835-1843.
33 . Neocleous D and Vasilakakis M (2007) Effects of NaCl stress on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.‘Autumn Bliss’). Scientia Horticulturae. 112:282–289.
34 . Parida AK, Das AB and Mittra B (2004) Effects of salt on growth, Ion accumulation photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of the mangrove .Trees 18:167-174.
35 . Perica S, Goreta S and Selak GV (2008) Growth biomass allocation and leaf ion concentration of seven olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars under increased salinity. Scientia Horticulturae. 117: 123–129.
36 . Prat D and Fathi-Ettai R (1990) Variation in organic and mineral components in young Eucalyptus seedlings under saline stress. Physiology of Plant. 79: 479–486.
37 . Reimann C (1992) Sodium exclusion by Chenopodium species. Journal of Experimental Botany. 249: 503–510.
38 . Sotiropoulos TE, Therios IN, Almaliotis D, Papadakis I and Dimassi KN (2006) Response of cherry rootstocks to boron and salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29: 1691-1698.
39 . Tabatabaei SJ (2006) Effects of salinity and N on the growth, photosynthesis and N status of olive, (Olea europaea L.) trees. Scientia Horticulturae108: 432-438.
40 . Tabatabaei SJ (2007) Salinity stress and olive: An overview. Plant Stress Global Science Books 1(1): 105-112.
41 . Tahammolkonan M and Golchin A (2011) Effect of different levels of salinity stress on two olive cultivars. Advances in Environmental Biology. 5(8): 2322-2325.
42 . Tattini M (1994) Ionic relations of aeroponically-grown olive plants during salt stress. Plant and Soil 161: 251–256.
43 . Tattini M, Gucci R, Coradeschi MA, Ponzio C and Edvard JD (1995) Growth, gas exchange and ion content in Olea europaeaL. plants during salinity stress and subsequent relief. Physiology of Plantarum. 95: 203–210.
44 . Vigo C, Therios IN and Bosabalidis M (2005) Plant growth, nutrient concentration and leaf anatomy of olive plants irrigated with diluted seawater. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 28: 1001–1021.