اثرات تنش شوری بر وزن خشک و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف دو رقم زیتون

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان – ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان - ایران

3 استادیار گروه باغبانی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت - ایران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثرات شوری بر رشد و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف در دو رقم زیتون، آزمایشی گلخانه­ای با پنج سطح شوری در بستر کشت بدون خاک انجام شد. در این آزمایش، نهال­های یک­ساله ارقام زیتون زرد و میشن، به مدت 5 ماه تحت 5 سطح شوری صفر، 4، 8، 12 و 16دسی­زیمنس بر متر ناشی از کلرور سدیم قرار گرفتند. تیمار شوری 16 دسی­زیمنس بر متر، وزن خشک کل ارقام میشن و زرد را به ترتیب 63 و 85 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش داد. کاهش 25 درصدی عملکرد نسبی وزن خشک کل در رقم میشن و زرد به ترتیب در شوری­های 7 و 6/3 دسی­زیمنس بر متر اتفاق افتاد. شوری باعث کاهش معنی­داری در غلظت عناصر پر مصرف و افزایش معنی­دار غلظت سدیم و کلر در ریشه و برگ هر دو رقم شد. شوری 16 دسی­زیمنس بر متر، غلظت سدیم در برگ و ریشه را به ترتیب 1660و 679 درصد، و غلظت کلر در برگ و ریشه را به ترتیب 1069 و 506 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش داد. در کلیه سطوح شوری، غلظت سدیم و کلر در برگ­های رقم زرد به طور معنی­داری بیشتر از رقم میشن بود. این نتایج نشان می­دهد که رقم میشن به واسطه استفاده از سازوکار تدافعی ایجاد محدودیت در جذب و انتقال سدیم به بخش­های هوایی و نیز حفظ سطح مناسبی از پتاسیم در برگ، از تحمل به شوری بالاتری در مقایسه با رقم زرد برخوردار است و می­توان از آن به عنوان یک رقم متحمل یاد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Salinity Stress on Dry Weight and Macronutrients Contents of two Olive Varieties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Seilsepour 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Mahmoud Reza Roozban 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Soil Fertility and Chemistry, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on growth and macroelements contents of two olive varieties in soilless culture medium. In the research, one-year old saplings of two olive varieties, ‘Zard’ and ‘Mission’, were subjected to different salinity levels induced by NaCl including 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m-1 for 5 months. Based on the results, total dry weights of the varieties were decreased at 16 dSm-1­­ compared to control up to 63 and 85% at ‘Mission’ and ‘Zard’, respectively. Also, a 25% reduction in total dry weight was observed under salinities of 7 and 3.6 dSm-1 for ‘Mission’ and ‘Zard’, respectively. Salinity was decreased the concentrations of macronutrients and increased the concentrations of Na and Cl in roots and leveas of the both varieties. Compared to control, Na and Cl concentrations in leaves and roots was increased under salinity of 16 dS/m-1­­ ­at 1660 and 679% for Na and 1069 and 506% for Cl. In all salinity levels, Na and Cl concentrations in the leaves and roots of 'Zard' variety were more than that of 'Mission'. Thesa data demonstrated that ‘Mission’ has a more salinity tolerance than ‘Zard’, and could be used as a salt-tolerant variety for cultivation under salinity conditions. The defence mechanisms of ‘Mission’ are restricting in absorbtion and translocation of Na to aerial parts and accumulate a proper concentration of K in Leaves.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salt tolerance
  • Macronutrients
  • root
  • shoot
  • olive

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