Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant, Department of Agricultural Research and Natural Resources of West Azarbaijan province, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Urmia, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer on water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under different water deficit conditions, an experimental was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of West-Azerbaijan (Saatlo station) during 2017-2018 cropping seasons. The first factor was irrigation in two levels: normal and drought stress conditions. The second factor was super absorbent polymer 200 kg ha-1, manure fertilizer 40 ton ha-1, dual their application and control (non-application fertilizer) and the third factor included wheat cultivars (Mihan, Heidari and Zarineh). The results indicated that drought stress compared to normal irrigation reduced grain yield, chlorophyll index, harvest index and relative water content about 32, 22, 24 and 19 percent, respectively. The highest leaf temperature (33.10 °C) was obtained under drought stress and non-application fertilizer application and the lowest leaf temperature (21.99 °C) under favorable irrigation conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer. The highest economical water use efficiency (1.34 kg m-3) and biological water use efficiency (4.10 kg m-3) were observed under drought stress conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer. Mihan was superior cultivar for grain yield, harvest index and relative water content among cultivars under two different moisture conditions. The highest grain and biological yields were obtained under favorable irrigation conditions and dual application of super absorbent polymer and manure fertilizer.


Abdoli, M. & Saeidi, M. (2012). Using different indices for selection of resistant wheat cultivars to post a thesis water deficit in the west of Iran. Annals of Biological Research, 3(3), 1322-1333.
Abedini, A. & Sajedi, N. A. (2015). Effect of application of superabsorbent polymer on physiological traits of dry land wheat cultivars. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 103, 139-146. (In Persian).
Ahmadi Lahijani, M. J. & Imami, Y. (2014). Investigating the response of wheat genotypes to drought stress at the end of the season using physiological indices. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 3(9), 163-175. (In Persian).
Alonso, R., Elvira, S., Castillo, F. J. & Gimeno, B. S. (2001). Interactive effects of ozone and drought stress on pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes in Pinus halepensis. Plant Cell Environment, 24(9), 905-916. DOI:
Asseng, S., Foster, I. & Turner, N. (2011). The impact of temperature variability on wheat yields. Global Change Biology, 17(2), 997-1012.
Asvadi, H., Aghayari, F. & Samiee, L. (2019). Nanostructured silica aerogel on water use efficiency of corn under deficit irrigation conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 20(2), 125-140. (In Persian)
Bai, B. Z., Yu, S. Q., Tian, W. X. & Zhao, J. Y. (1996). Plant physiology. China Agricultural Science Press.
Bates, L. S., Waldern, R. P. & Teave, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free praline for water stress standees. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207. DOI: 10.1007/BF00018060.
Fazeli Rostampoor, M. & Mohebbian, S. M. (2012). The effect of irrigation and superabsorbent polymer on the remobilization of photosynthetic material (Zea mays L.) in corn. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 4(2), 127-138. (In Persian).
Fazeli Rostampoor, M., Seghatoleslami, M. J. & Moosavi, S. G. R. (2011). Effect of water stress and polymer (Superjazeb A200) on yield and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) in Birjand region. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 4(1), 11-19. (In Persian).
Flexas, J. & Medrano, H. (2002). Drought–inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomata and non-stomatal limitations revisited. Annals of Botany, 89(2), 183-189.
Gholam Hoseini, M., Ghalavand, A., Khodaei-Joghan, A., Dolatabadian, A., Zakikhani, H. & Farmanbar, H. (2013). Zeolite-amended cattle manure effects on sunflower yield, seed quality, water use efficiency and nutrient leaching. Soil and Tillage Research, 126(1), 193-202.
Gholinezhad, E.,  Ayenehband, A., Hassanzadeh Ghourt tapeh, A., Noormohammadi, Gh. &  Bernousi, I. (2010). Effect of irrigation regime on water and nitrogen use efficiency in sunflower at various levels of nitrogen application and plant density under Urmia climate conditions. Water and Soil Science, 20(1), 27-45. (In Persian).
Jafari, M., Rezaei Nejad, A. H. & Feizian, M. (2017). Effect of super-absorbent, manure and irrigation frequency on growth and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of Rose Geranium. Crops Improvement, 18(2), 467-480. (In Persian).
Jahan, M., Kamayestani, N. & Ranjbar, F. (2014). Assay for applying super absorbent polymer in a low input corn (Zea mays L.) production system aimed to reduce drought stress under Mashhad conditions. Agroecology, 5(3),272-281.(In Persian)
Kafi, M. & Panahi, H. (2013). Effect of low irrigation on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of wheat cultivars in Mashhad. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 27(4), 587-577. (In Persian).
Kazemi, M. R., Ghoshchi, F. & Kasrayee, P. (2017). Effect of super absorbent polymer on the morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water deficit stress. Quarterly Journal of Agronomy Research at the Desert Border, 13(1), 47-62. (In Persian).
Madanzadeh, H. R., Paknezhad, F., Habibi, D., Sadeghi Shoa, M. & Rezaei, K. (2016). Effect of drought stress and irrigation methods on WUE of tow soybean cultivars. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 11(1), 1-6. (In Persian)
Moradi-Ghahderijani, M., Jafarian, S. &Keshavarz, H. (2017). Alleviation of water stress effects and improved oil yield in sunflower by application of soil and foliar amendments. Rhizosphere, 4, 54-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.rhisph.2017.06.002.
Mortazavy, S. M., Tavakoli, A., Mohammadi, M. H. & Afsahi, K. (2016). Effect of superabsorbent on physiological traits and yield of wheat Azar2 cultivar under dry farming condition. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 106, 118-125. (In Persian)
Nakhjjvani Moghadamad, M. M., Sadr Ghayen, S. H. & Akbari, M. (2010). Effects of water stress on yield and water use efficiency of wheat. Third National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Management. Chamran Ahwaz University. 20 Feb. Khuzestan, Iran.
Nazarli, H., Zardashti, M. R., Darvishzadeh, R. & Najafi, S. (2010). The effect of water stress and polymer on water use efficiency, yield and several morphological traits of sunflower. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(4), 53-58.
Pouresmaeil, P. (2006). Evaluation of effects of superabsorbent polymer on water use efficiency and yield of Kidney bean. Master thesis of Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Iran.
Razban, M. & Pirzad, A. (2012). Evaluation the effect of varying amounts of superabsorbent under different irrigation on growth and water deficit tolerance of German Chamomile (Matrica chamomilla), as a second crop. Journal of Agricultural Science, 21(4), 123-137. (In Persian)
Robiul Islam, M. R., Hu, Y., Mao, S., Jia, P., Eneji, A. E. & Xue, X. (2011). Effects of water-saving uperabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and Lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea max L.) under drought stress. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(5), 813-819. Doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4252.
Rosales, M. A., Ocampo, E., Rodriguez-Valentin, R., Olvera-Carrillo, Y., Acosta-Gallegos, J. & Covarrubias, A. A. (2012). Physiological analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars uncovers characteristics related to terminal drought resistance. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 56, 24-34. Doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.04.007.
Shobeiri, S., Ghasemi Gholozani, K., Gholchin, A. & Jalal, S. (2007). Effect of irrigation water on the phenology and yield of three chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 16(2), 137-147. (In Persian).
Singh, D. P., Singh, P., Kumar, A. & Sharma, H. C. (1985). Transpiration cooling as a screening technique for drought tolerance in oilseed Brassica. Annals of Botany, 56, 815-820.
TayfeRezaei, H. (2014). Planning irrigation of crops and garden. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Organization, Agricultural Jihad Organization. 24 pages. (In Persian).
Verbruggen, N. & Hermans, C. (2008). Proline accumulation in plants: a review. Amino Acids, 35(4), 753-759. DOI: 10.1007/s00726-008-0061-6.
Widiastuti, N., Wu, H., Ang, M. & Zhang, D. K. (2008). The potential application of natural zeolite for greywater treatment. Desalination, 218(1-3), 271-280. DOI:
Wikenz, J. E. & Norfolk, I. (2010). Eco-Physiology of economic plants in arid and semi-arid regions, Adaptations for desert living creatures. Translated by Zehtabian, A., A. Shahriyari and M. R. Javadi. Tehran University Press. P. 370. Tehran, Iran.
Zhang, B., Li, F. M., Huang, G., Cheng, Z. Y. & Zhang, Y. (2006). Yield performance of spring wheat improved by regulated deficit irrigation in an arid area. Agricultural Water Management, 79(1), 28-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.02.007.