Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of biological and organic fertilizers on the yield (quality and quantity) of chicory forage under rainfed condition, a factorial experiment was conducted at Urmia University based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2016. Treatments included control, Mycorrhiza (AMF), Thiobacillus bacteria (Thio), AMF+Thio, Vermicompost (V), AMF+V, Thio+V and AMF+Thio+V that their effects were evaluated in two growth stages (before stem elongation and full flowering). In comparison with control, the AMF+Thio+V increased dry forage yield, dry matter digestibility, crude protein yield and water soluble carbohydrates yield 99.72%, 143.21%, 68.54% and 76% in full flowering stage, respectively, and this treatment had lowest acid detergent fiber content at both growth stages among all treatments. In general, the use of Mycorrhiza and Thiobacillus together with vermicompost, improved the quantitative and qualitative performance of chicory forage in rainfed condition.


Abdel-Fattah, G. M., Hassan Rabie, G., Shaaban Lamis, D., & Metwally Rabab, A. (2016). The impact of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiological parameters of cowpea plants grown under salt stress conditions. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 4(3), 372-379. DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v4i3.15775.
Abolfazli, B., Alikhani, H. A., & Rejali, F. (2017). Evaluating synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on symbiotic nitrogen fixation in lentil plant under water stress conditions. Journal of Soil Biology. 4(2), 123-134. DOI: 10.22092/SBJ.2017.109307. (In Persian).
Aghhavani Shajari, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R., & Nasiri Mahallati, M. (2016). Effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Journal of Horticultural Science. 29(4), 486-500. (In Persian).
Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H. R., Hatami, F., Hoseinpour, R., & Abd-Shah, H. (2018). Agricultural Statistics: Garden products. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Agriculture Press, 241 p. (In Persian).
Ahmadi, K., Gholizadeh, H., Ebadzadeh, H. R., Hoseinpour, R., Abd-Shah, H., Kazemian, A., & Rafiei, M. (2017). Agricultural statistics: Field crops. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Agriculture Press, 125 p. (In Persian).
Ahmadi Motlagh, G., Majidian, M., Mohsenabadi, G., Fooman, A., & Alami, A. (2014). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of three forage sorghum cultivars in Rasht region. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 3(10), 1-11. (In Persian). 
Anandhama, R., Sridarb, R., Nalayinic, P., Poonguzhalia, S., Madhaiyana, M., & Tongmin, S. (2007). Potential for plant growth promotion in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. ALR-2 by co-inoculation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and Rhizobium. Microbiological Research. 162(2),  139-153. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2006.02.005.
Ansori, A., Shahgholi, H., Makarian, H., & Gholipoor, M. (2016). The effect of planting date on the growth and yield of indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.) in Shahrood conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 14(1), 37-47. (In Persian).
Aslanpour, M., Dolati Baneh, H., Tehranifar, A., & Shoor, M. (2016). The effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the amount of glycine betaine, soluble sugar, proline, leaf water content and leaf chlorophyll of the white seedless grape under drought stress conditions. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. 7(3), 1119-1133.
Bagheri Dehabadi, M., Moghadam, H., Chaichi, M. R., & Zilouie, N. (2017). The mycorrhiza and iron and zinc foliar application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Crop Improvement (Journal of Agricultural Crops Production). 19(3), 799-815. (In Persian).
Dianaty Tilaki, G., Salehi, S., & Sadati, E. (2015). Effect of salinity stress (Na2SO4) on forage quality of Medicago polymorpha and Medicago scutelata. Watershed Management Research. 107, 57-65. (In Persian). 
Dolatmand Shahri, N., & Tahmasebi, I. (2016).  Effect of nitrogen and plant density on silage yield and quality of maize c.v MV500 as second crop. Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture). 18(1), 173-182. (In Persian).
Dostalova, Y., Hrivna, L., Kotkova, B., Buresova, I., Janeckova, M., & Sottnikova, V. (2015). Effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the quality of barley protein. Plant, Soil and Environment. 61(9), 399-404. DOI: 10.17221/262/2015-PSE.
Ehteshami, S., Abbasi, M., Khavazi, K., & Zand, B. (2014). Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria strains (Pseudomonas putida) on forage quality and quantity of sorghum cultivars in Varamin. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 2(6), 1-11. (In Persian).
El-Khateeb, M.A., El-Leithy, A.S., & Aljemaa, B.A. (2011). Effect of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and humic acid on vegetative growth and chemical composition of Acacia saligna Labill. seedlings under different irrigation intervals. Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants. 3(3), 283-289.
Feli, A., Maleki Farahani, S., & Besharati, H. (2018). The impact of chemical urea fertilizer and different organic and biofertilizers on both quantitative and qualitative yield and some soil properties in cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Crop Improvement (Journal of Agricultural Crops Production). 20(2), 345-356. DOI: 10.22059/JCI.2017.60472. (In Persian).
Ghasemi, S. (2015). Effect of vermicompost on salinity tolerance and iron and zinc absorption capacity of tomato in a calcareous soil. Water and Soil Science. 25(2), 271-283. (In Persian).
Gholinezhad, E. (2017). Effect of two species mycorrhizal fungi on quantitative and qualitative yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) landraces in different levels of drought stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 15(1), 150-167. (In Persian).
Giovannetti, M., & Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist. 84, 489-500. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1980.tb04556.x.
Izadi Yazdanabadi, F., Esmailpor Akhlamad, U., Omidi, A., & Behdani, M. A. (2013). Evaluation of fox tail millet (Setaria italica) forage quality in different growth stages. Agroecology. 5(3), 282-288. DOI: (In Persian).
Jabbari, R., & Abbasdokht, H. (2017). The effect of mycorrhizae symbiosis, soil and foliar spray of Flomix on forage yield and some qualitative characteristics of corn (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 48(2), 351-364. DOI: 10.22059/ijfcs.2017.134469.653964. (In Persian).
Jafari, A., Connolly, V., Frolich, A., & Walsh, E. I. (2003). A note on estimation of quality parameters in perennial ryegrass by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Irish Journal of agricultural and food research. 42, 293-299.
Karimi, A. R., Behdani, M. A., Fathi, M. H., & Eslami, S. V. (2017). Effect of vermicompost and micronutrient application on forage quantity and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Agroecology. 9(3), 862- 877. DOI: 10.22067/jag.v9i3.56280. (In Persian).
Kheiry, A., Arghavani, M., & Khastoo, M. (2016). Effects of organic fertilizers application on morphophysiological characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 31(6), 1047-1057.  (In Persian).
Li, G., & Kemp, P. D. (2005). Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): A review of its agronomy and animal production. Advances in Agronomy. 88, 187-222. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88005-8.
Mahmud, M., Abdullah, R., & Syafawati Yaacob, J. (2018). Effect of vermicompost amendment on nutritional status of sandy loam soil, growth performance, and yield of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. MD2) under field conditions. Agronomy. 8(183), 1-17. DOI:10.3390/agronomy8090183.
Monirifar, H. (2015). Alfalfa (Planting, Growing, Harvesting). Alborz, Iran. Agricultural Training Press. 248 p. (In Persian).
Moradi, H., Fahramand, M., Sobhkhizi, A., Adibian, M., Noori, M., Abdollahi, Sh., & Rigi, Kh. (2014). Effect of vermicompost on plant growth and its relationship with soil properties. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences. 3(3), 333-338. 
Moradtalab, N., Hajiboland, R., Aliasgharzad, N., Hartmann, T. E., & Neumann, G. (2019). Silicon and the association with an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus clarus) mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress on strawberry. Agronomy. 9(41), DOI:10.3390/agronomy9010041. 
Mortazaeinezhad, F., & Jazizadeh, E. (2017). Effects of water stress on morphological and physiological indices of Cichorium intybus L. for introduction in urban landscapes. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 6(21), 279-290. (In Persian).
Motamedi, J., Arzani, H., Sheidaye Karkaj, E & Alijapour, A. (2013).  Forage quality of 25 important species from summer rangelands of Nazlo Chai Basin in Urmia. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 20(4), 653-668. DOI: 10.22092/IJRDR.2014.5805. (In Persian).
Najafzadeh, R., Rahmati, M., & Arzani, K. (2013). Management and productivity of rainwater in rainfed agriculture. First National Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems. Mashhad. Iran. (In Persian).  
Nazari, Sh., Zaefrian, F., Farahmandfar, E., Zand, E., & Azimi Sooran, S. (2014). Effect of harvest time on forage yield and quality maize under intercropping with legume plants. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(2), 237-245. DOI: 10.22067/gsc.v12i2.39155. (In Persian).
Neciu, F.C., Saplacan, Gh., Rechitean, D., & Dragomir, N. (2017). Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-Pretability in crops and effects in ruminants feeding: Review. Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 50(1), 170-175.
Osoli, N., & Taleshi, K. (2018). Evaluation the effects of biological fertilizers and vermicompost on some of biological characteristics and essential oil quality of fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare L.) in Khoramabad. Journal of Applied Research of Plant Ecophysiology. 4(2), 123-138. (In Persian).
Phillips, J. M., & Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 55, 158-161. DOI: 10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3.
Rahimzadeh, S., & Pirzad, A. (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study. Mycorrhiza. 27(6), 537-552. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-017-0775-y.
Rahmatpour, S., Alikhani, H. A., & Mir-Seyyed Hoseini, H. (2013). The effect of foliar application of vermiwash on growth and yield indices of wheat and absorption of zinc, iron and phosphorus in wheat grain. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research. 44(2), 203-211. (In Persian).
Sabrina, D. T., Hanafi, M. M., Gandahi, A. W., Muda Mohamed, M. T., & Abdul Aziz, N. A. (2013). Effect of mixed organic-inorganic fertilizer on growth and phosphorus uptake of setaria grass (Setaria splendida). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 7(1), 75-83.
Shaaban, L. D., Rabi, G. H., & Metwally, R. A. (2015). Role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of Zea mays on heavy metals tolerance. The Egyptian Journal of Botany55(2), 297-306.
Soltanian, M., Tadayyon, A., & Falah, S. (2015). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some vegetative traits and yield of linseed under water deficit stress conditions. Agricultural Crop Management (Journal of Agriculture). 17(3), 621-634. DOI: 10.22059/JCI.2015.54374. (In Persian).
Tadayyon, A., & Soltanian, M. (2016). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on root colonization and phosphorus uptake of linseed (Linum ussitatissimum L.) under drought stress conditions. Journal of Plant Process and Function5(15), 147-156. (In Persian).
Wathira, N. L., Wachira, P., & Okoth, Sh. (2016). Enhancement of colonisation of soybean roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using vermicompost and biochar. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 5(3), 71-78. DOI: 10.11648/j.aff.20160503.17.
Wei, X., Zhipeng, H., Xiaofu, Zh., Xuelian, J., Lijiao, X., Songlin, W., Aihua, Zh., Zhang, X & Baodong, Ch. (2018).  Arbuscular mycorrhiza facilitates the accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in Glycyrrhiza uralensis under drought stress. Mycorrhiza. 28(3), 285-300. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-018-0827-y. 
Yadegari, M., & Barzegar, R. (2010). The effect of sulphur and Thiobacillus on nutrient absorption, growth and essential oil in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Journal of Herbal Drugs. 1, 35-40. (In Persian).