Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran

4 Associate Professor, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.


In order to study the effect of slow release hydrogel-urea complex (SRHUC) on yield, yield components and physiological traits of barley under water deficit, an experiment was performed in 2017-2018 and conducted as factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications in greenhouse of Aburaihan campus of University of Tehran. The combination of factorial levels were as fertilization factor containing nitrogen (N) from urea source in five levels of no use of N, equivalent 125 and 65 kg.ha-1 N (without SRHUC) as CU-N125 and CU-N65 and equivalent 125 and 65 kg.ha-1 N with SRHUC as SRHUC-N125 and SRHUC-N65 and water deficit in three levels of 70, 50 and 30% of FC. Water deficit decreased yield and yield components, RWC and SPAD. The highest grain yield in a pot belonged to SRHUC-N125 (41.9 g) and there was no significant difference between CU-N125 (41.5 g) and SRHUC-N65 (39.1 g). For most of the traits, there was no significant difference between SRHUC-N125 and SRHUC-N65 and CU-N125. Under stress, utilization of SRHUC for both N amount could generate a better biological yield and SPAD index. Using N in the form of SRHUC was preferred to using of N without SRHUC, especially under stressed conditions.


Agami, R. A., Almari, S. A. M., El-Maghed, T. A. A., AbbouSekken, M. S. M., & Hashem, M. (2018). Role of exogenous nitrogen supply in alleviating the deficit irrigation stress in wheat plants. Agricultural Water Management, 210 (C), 261-270. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.08.034
Ahmadi, K., Gholizade, H., Ebadzade, H. R., Hoseeinpour, R., Abdshah, H., Kazemian, A., & Rafiee, M. (2017). Agricultural Statistics Report, Crop year 2016-2015. First volume: Crops, Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad. Deputy of Planning and Economic Affairs, Center for Information and Communication Technology, 117 P. (In Persian).
Akbari, S., Kafi, M., & Rezvan Beidokhti, S. (2017). The effect of drought stress and plant density on biochemical and physiological characteristics of two Garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 14(4), 665-674. DOI: 10.22067/gsc.v14i4.41406 (In Persian)
Al-Ajlouni, Z. I., Al-Abdallat, A. M., Al-Ghzawi, A. L. A., AYad, J. Y., Abu Elenein, J. M., Al-Quraan, N. A., & Baenziger, S. (2016). Impact of pre-anthesis water deficit on yield and yield components in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants grown under controlled conditions, Agronomy, 6(2), 1-14. DOI: 10.3390/agronomy6020033.
Azarpour, E., Moraditochaee, M., & Bozorgi, H.R. (2014). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer management on growth analysis of Rice cultivars. International Journal of Biosciences, 4(5), 35-47. DOI: 10.12692/ijb/4.5.35-47.
Baran, A., Zaleski, T., Kulikowski, E., & Wieczorek, J. (2015). Hydrophysical and biological properties of sandy substrata enriched with hydrogel. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 24(6), 2355-2362. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/59258.
Basra, S. M. A., Iqbal, S., & Afzal, I. (2014). Evaluating the response of nitrogen application on growth, development and yield of quinoa genotypes. Internatioonal Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 16, 886-892.
Dugdale, H., Harris, G., Neilsen, J., Richards, D., Wigginton, D., & Williams, D. (2013). Waterpak- a guide for irrigation management in cotton and grain farming systems. Cotton Research & Development Corporation, 3rd ed, 486 P.
Ghaemi, A. A., & Zamani, B. (2014). Effect of different level of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of Barley in Badjgah (Fars province). Journal of Water and Soil, 29(4), 954-965. DOI: 10.22067/jsw.v0i0.43208 (In Persian).
Han, M., Wong, J., Su, T., Beatty, P. H., & Good, A. G. (2016). Identification of nitrogen use efficiency genes in Barley: searching for QTLs controlling complex physiological traits. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1587. Doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01587.
Hawkesford, M. J. (2014). Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. Journal of Cereal Science, 59(3), 276-283. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2013.12.001.
He, X. S., Liao, Z. W., Huang, P. Z., Duan, J. X., Ge, R. S., Li, H. B., & Geng, Z. C. (2007). Characteristics and performance of novel water-absorbent slow release nitrogen fertilizer. Agricultural Science in China; 6(3), 338-346. DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(07)60054-6.
Khajehpour, M. R. (2014). Cereal Crops. Jihad Daneshgahi of Isfahan Industrial University Press. 783 P. (In Persian)
Krouk, G., Crawford, N. M., Coruzzi, G. M., & Tsay, Y. F. (2010). Nitrate signaling: adaptation to fluctuating environments.Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13(3), 266-273. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2009.12.003.
Li, Y., Sun, Y., Liao, S., Zou, G., Zhao, T., Chen, Y., Yang, J., & Zhang, L. (2017). Effects of two slow-release nitrogen fertilizers and irrigation on yield, quality, and water-fertilizer productivity of greenhouse tomato. Agricultural Water Management, 186, 139-146. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.02.006.
Majnon Hosseini, N. (2011). Cereal Crops. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran, 221 P. (In Persian)
Montesano, F. F., Parente, A., Santamaria, P., Sannino, A., & Serio, F. (2015). Biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel increases water retention properties of growing media and plant growth. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 4, 451-458.
Mouloodi, A., Ebadi, A., & Jahanbakhsh, S. (2015). The effect of different amounts of nitrogen and water deficits tension on yield, yield components and some physiological indicators in spring barley. Crop Physiology Journal, 6(24), 29-40. (In Persian)
Mousavifar, B. E., Behdani M. A., Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., & Hosseini Bajd, M. S. (2011). Changes of chlorophyll index (SPAD), Relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring Safflower genotypes under irrigation termination. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 9(3), 525-534. (In Persian)
Sattari, O., Mirzakhani, M., & Hashemi, A. (2017). Effect of seeding rate and nitrogen levels on agronomic characteristics and nitrogen use efficiency of barley cultivar (MB-82-12). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 9(28), 101-109. (In Persian)
Saxton, K. E., Rawls, W. J., Romberger, J. S., & Papendick, R. I. (1986). Estimating generalized soil-water characteristics from texture. Soil Science Society America Journal, 50(4), 1031-1036. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1986.03615995005000040039x.
Saxton, K. E., & Rawls, W. J. (2006). Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrological solutions. Soil Science Society America Journal, 70, 1569-1578.
Seyed Sharifi, R., Afsari, F., & Seyed Sharifi, R. (2018). Application of nitrogen rates at different growth stages effects on dry matter remobilization and effective traits at dry matter accumulation of grain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Plant Process and Function,6(19), 337-350. (In Persian)
Tigre, W., Worku, W., & Haile, W. 2014. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Bore District, Southern Oromia. American Journal of Life Sciences, 2(5), 260-266. DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20150306.15.
Wang, Li., Xue, Cheng., Pan, X., Chen, F., & Liu, Y. (2018). Application of controlled-release urea enhance grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated Rice in the Yangtze River basin, China. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 999. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00999.
Xiao, X., Yu, L., Xie, F., Bao, X., Liu, H., Ji, Z., & Chen, L. (2016). One-step method to prepare starch based superabsorbent polymer for slow release of fertilizer. Chemical Engineering Journal, 309, 607-616. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.101.
Yang, Y., Ni, X., Zhou, Z., Yum L., Liu, B., Yang, Y., & Wu, Y. (2017). Performance of matrix-based slow-release urea in reducing nitrogen loss and improving maize yields and profits. Field Crops Research, 212, 73-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2017.07.005.
Zhen, S., Deng, X., Zhang, M., Zhu, G., Lv, D., Wang, Y., Zhu, D., & Yan, Y. (2017). Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis under high-nitrogen fertilizer reveals central phosphoproteins promoting Wheat grain starch and protein synthesis. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8(67), 1-20. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00067.