Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran


To study the effect of row spacing and plant density on agronomic traits of dual purpose sunflower; cultivar Lakomka two years' study from 2014 was carried out as a factorial experiment based on RCB design with four replications in Khoy. The experimental treatments included row spacing at two levels (60 and 75 cm) and five plant densities (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 thousands P ha-1). According to the results there were no significant difference between 60 and 75 cm row spacing for any of the studied traits; however plant density had significant effect on all of the traits. Phenological stages accelerated and head diameter decreased but plant height and oil content increased as plant density increased. Seed weight decreased from115 g to 84 g while oil content increased from 36% to 39% as plant density increased from 30 to 90000 P.ha-1. The highest seed and oil yields (4132 and 1611 kg ha-1) were observed in plant density of 75000 P.ha-1. The regression analyses revealed that oil content, plant height and seed number, are the most effective traits for predictor of oil yield. The results of this study indicated that plant densities of 75 and 45000 P.ha-1 are optimum densities for production of cultivar Lakomka with higher oil yield and as confectionary use in Khoy, West Azarbaijan.


Annonymous. (2018). Meteorological Office of West Azarbaijan.Retrieved from
Beg, A. S. S. P., Pourdad, S. S. & Alipour, S. (2007). Row and plant spacing effects on agronomic performance of sunflower in warm and semi-cold area of Iran. Helia30(47), 99-104.
Babamiri, O. & Dinpazhoh, Y. (2016). Comparison and Evaluation of Twenty Methods for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Based on Three General Categories: Air Temperature, Solar Radiation and Mass Transfer in the Basin of Lake Urmia. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 20(77), 145-161.
Bindra, A. & Kharwara, P. C. (1992). Response of spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to nitrogen application and spacing. Indian Journal of Agronomy37(2), 283-284.
Dipenbrock, W., Long, M. & Feil, B. (2001). Yield and quality of sunflower as affected by row orientation, row spacing and plant density. Bodenkultur-Wien & Munchen52(1), 29-36.
Fazel, M. A. & Lack, S. H. (2011). The effects of irrigation–off at different growth stages, planting patterns and plant population on grain yield and dry matter remobilization of grain corn. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(4), 463-473.
Flenet, F., Kiniry, J. R., Board, J. E., Westgate, M. E. & Reicosky, D. C. (1996). Row spacing effects on light extinction coefficients of corn, sorghum, soybean, and sunflower. Agronomy Journal88(2), 185-190.
Ghaffari, M. & Hoseinlou, S. H. (2013). Seed yield determinants of sunflower under drought stressed and well watered conditions. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production4(Special Issue), 3816-3823.
Ghaffari, M. & Mirzapour M. (2009). Agronomic characteristics and heritability of traits in confection sunflower populations in Khoy. Journal of Research in Crop Sciences, 1(3), 95-106.
Goksoy, A. T., Turan, Z. M. & Açikgöz, E. (1998). Effect of planting date and plant population on seed and oil yield and plant characteristics in sunflower. Helia21, 107-116.
Gubbels, G. H. & Dedio, W. (1989). Effect of plant density and seeding date on early-and late-maturing sunflower hybrids. Canadian Journal of Plant Science69(4), 1251-1254.
Holt, N. W. & Campbell, S. J. (1984). Effect of plant density on the agronomic performance of sunflower on dryland. Canadian Journal of Plant Science64(3), 599-605.
Holt, N. W. & Zentner, R. P. (1985). Effect of plant density and row spacing on agronomic performance and economic returns of nonoilseed sunflower in southeastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science65(3), 501-509.
Killi, F. & Ozdemir, G. (2001). Response of hybrid oilseed sunflower cultivars to plant density. Proceedings of the 3th  Field Crops Congress. Tekirdag, Turkey Vol. 2, 29-32.
Kholghi, M., Bernousi, I., Darvishzadeh, R. & Pirzad, A. (2011). Correlation and path-coefficient analysis of seed yield and yield related trait in Iranian confectionery sunflower populations. African Journal of Biotechnology10(61), 13058-13063.
Majid, H. R. & Schneiter, A. A. (1988). Semidwarf and conventional height sunflower performance at five plant populations. Agronomy journal80(5), 821-824.
Malakouti, M. J., Majidi, A., Balali, M. R., Drodi, S. & Davoudi, H., Shahbazi K., (2003). Optimum fertilizer recommendation to crops and fruits in West Azarbaijan. Technical publication No.196. Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, p 39.
Metz, G. L., Green, D. E. & Shibles, R. M. (1984). Relationships between Soybean Yield in Narrow Rows and Leaflet, Canopy, and Developmental Characters. Crop science24(3), 457-462.
Mojiri, A. & Arzani, A. (2003). Effect of nitrogen rate and plant density on yield and yield components of sunflower. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 7(2), 115-125.
Olowe, V. I. O. (2005). Effect of plant population density on growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the transition zone of south west Nigeria. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension8, 37-44.
Poursakhi, N. & Khajehpour, M. R. (2012). Effect of Planting Pattern and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower, Hisun-36 Hybrid. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 2(5), 1-12. (In Persian)
Robinson, R. G., Ford, J. H., Luenschen, W. E., Rabas, D. L., Smith, L. J., Warnes, D. D. & Wiersma, J. V. (1980). Response of Sunflower to Plant Population, Agronomy Journal72(6), 869-871.
Suzer, S. (2010). Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids. Helia33(53), 207-214.
Schneiter, A. A. & Miller, J. F. (1981). Description of sunflower growth stages. Crop Science21(6), 901-903.
Shankar, V. G., Ganesh, M., Ranganatha, A. R. G. & Bhave, M. H. V. (2006). A study on correlation and path analysis of seed yield and yield components in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Agricultural Science Digest26(2), 87-90.
Valadabadi S.A., Moradi Aghdam A., Daneshian J., Zakerin H.R., Ghaffari M. & Roshdi M. (2008). The effect of plant density on phonology and yield traits of confectionary sunflower under water deficit conditions. Plant and Ecosystem, 4(13), 90-106. (In Persian)
Vannozzi, G. P. & Baldini M. (1988). The effect of plant density and “rectangularity” on achene yield in long and short stemmed sunflower cultivars. XII International Sunflower Conference, Yugoslavia. 1: 392-394.
Wade, L. J. & Foreman, J. W. (1988). Density multiply maturity interactions for grain yield in sunflower. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture28(5), 623-627.
Xiao, S., Chen, S. Y., Zhao, L. Q. & Wang, G. (2006). Density effects on plant height growth and inequality in sunflower populations. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology48(5), 513-519.
Yeremenko, O., Kalenska, S., Kiurchev, S., Rud, A., Chynchyk, O. & Semenov, O. (2017). Sunflower productivity under the effect of plant growth regulator in the conditions of insufficient moisture. Scientific achievements in agricultural engineering, agronomy and veterinary medicine, Traicon. 1(2), 196-217.
Zaffaroni, E. & Schneiter, A. A. (1991). Sunflower production as influenced by plant type, plant population, and row arrangement. Agronomy Journal83(1), 113-118.