Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plants Breeding,Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University,Urmia,Iran.

2 Associate Professor,Department of Agronomy and Plants Breeding,Faculty of Agriculture,Urmia University,Urmia,Iran

3 Assistant Professor,Department of Agronomy and Plants Breeding,Faculty of Agriculture,Urmia University,Urmia,Iran


In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on the seed yield and chemical composition of essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of urmia, Iran during growing season of 2015-2016. The first factor included of three Landraces (Urmia, Hamdan and Germany) and second factor included of four biofertilizers as: complete biofertilizers (consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur supplier bacteria), mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices), integrated Bacterial biofertilizers with mycorrhizal fungi and control treatment. Results indicated that application of biofertilizers enhanced the seed yield, colonization percentage, nutrients absorption, essential oil content, essential oil yield and essential oil composition. Among treatments, combined usage of biofertilizers showed that great increasing in studied traits than individual consumption. Also, The effect of landrace on all studied quantitative and qualitative traits was significant except for seed nitrogen. Seed yield of the German landrace were higher than Hamedan and Urmia landrace. The main components of the essential oils fennel were; Anethol, Fenchone, Limonene and p-Allylanisole. The highest amount of anethole was found in Urmia landrace in inoculated with mycorrhiza and bacterial biofertilizer. In general, the results showed that the use of biofertilizers had a significant effect on the improvement of quality and quantity of fennel traits.


Abdel Wahab, M. M., El- Attar, A. B. & Shehata, S. A. (2016). Boosting fnnel plant yield and components using combination of manure, compost and biofertilizers. Arabian Journal of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 2(1), 28-36.
Abdul-Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R. & Panneerselvam, R. (2007). Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomass yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 60, 7–11. (In Persian).
Alijani, M., Amini Dehaghi, M., Malboobi, M. A., Zahedi, M. & Modares Sanavi, S. A. M. (2011). The effect of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer together with phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar 2) on yield, essential oil amount and chamazulene percentage of Matricaria recutita L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(3), 450-459. (In Persian).
Bahadori, F., Sharifi Ashorabadi, E., Mirza, M., Matinizade, M. & Abdosi, V. (2015). The effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on N, P and K uptake and yield of Thymus daenensis Clak. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(3), 527-538. (In Persian)
Bastami, A. & Majidian, M. (2016). Comparison between mycorrhizal fungi, phosphate biofertilizer and manure application on growth parameters and dry weight of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Medicinal plant, 7, 23-33. (In Persian)
Behzadi, Y. & Salehi, A. (2017).  Effects of biological, organic, and chemical fertilizers on uptake of N, P, K, grain yield, and essential oil yield in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(6), 1026-1036. (In Persian).
Darzi, M. T., Hadj Seyed Hadi, M. R. & Rejali, F. (2012). Effects of cattle manure and plant growth promoter bacteria application on some morphological traits and yield in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 28(3), 434-446. (In Persian).
Dastborhan, S., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Nasrollahzadeh, S. & Tavassoli, A. R. (2011). Effect of biofertilizers and different amounts of nitrogen on yield of flower and essential oil and nitrogen use efficiency of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(2), 290-305. (In Persian).
Eblagh, N., Fateh, E., Farzane, M. & Osfuri, M. (2013). Effect of Cattle Manure Application, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Different Phosphrous Levels on Yield and Essence Components of Trachyspermum ammi L. Special Issue Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 1-15. (In Persian)
Gehring, C. A., Mueller, R. C. & Whitham, T. G. (2006). Environmental and genetic effects on the formation of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal in cottonwoods. Oecologia, 149, 158-164.
Ghanepasand, F. & Haj Seyed Hadi, M. R. (2016). Effects of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on seed yield and essential oil content of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(4), 716-727. (In Persian).
Gharib, F. A., Moussa, L. A. & Massoud, O. N. (2008). Effect of compost and Bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(4), 381-387.
Giovannetti, M. & Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular micorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist, 84, 489-500.
Gholami Ganjeh, S. & Salehi, A. (2015). Effects of different levels of vermicompost and biofertilizers on essential oil content and uptake of some elements in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(5), 822-830. (In Persian).
Hamzei, J. & Salimi, F. (2014). Root Colonization, Yield and Yield Components of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) Affected by Mycorhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Fertilizer. Journal of Agricultural and sustainable production, 24, 85-96. (In Persian).
Jahan, M., Koocheki, A. & Nasiri mahalaty, M. (2007). Growth, photosynthesis and yield of corn in response to mycorrhiza and nitrogen fixing bacteria in conventional and ecologic agro-ecosystems. Agronomy research journal, 5(1), 53-66.
Kamayei, R., Parsa, M. & Jahan, M. (2015). Effect of Biological, Chemical, and Organic Fertilizers on Some Growth Characteristics And the performance of the Vicia villosa . Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 13(2), 391-398. (In Persian)
Kapoor, R., Giri, B. & Mukerji, K. G. (2004). Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology, 93, 307-311.
Kazeminasab, A., Yarnia, M., Lebaschi, M. H., Mirshekar, B. & Rajali, F. (2016). Effects of vermicompost and biofertilizers on essential oil composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(4), 678-687. (In Persian)
Khalesro, Sh., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F. & Asgharzadeh, A. (2012). The effect of biological and organic inputs on quantity and quality of essential oil and some elements content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(4), 551-560. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A. R., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S. & Nadjafi, F. (2015). Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Agroecology, 7(1), 129. (In Persian)
Mader, P., Fliessbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P. & Niggli, U. (2002). Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science, 296, 1694-1697.
Mafakheri, S., Asghari, B. & Shaltooki, M. (2016). Effects of biological, chemical and nano-fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Lallemantia iberica (M.B.) Fischer & Meyer. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(4), 667-677. (In Persian).
Mahmoudzadeh, M., Rassouli Sedghiani, M. H. & Asgari Lagayer, M. (2015). The Effect of Rhizobacteria Growth Stimulator and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Morphological Characteristics and High Contaminated Elements of Peppermint Mentha piperita L. in Greenhouse Conditions. Science and technology of greenhouse crops, 24(6), 155-167. (In Persian)
Moradi Marjaneh, E., Galavi, M., Ramroudi, M. & Solouki, M. (2017). Investigating of some quantitative and physiological characteristics in rosemary as affected by biological and chemical fertilizers at different cuts. Journal of Agricultural Crops Production, 19(4), 1061-1076. (In Persian)
Moradi, R. A., Nasiri Mahalati, M., Rezvani Moghadam, P., Lakzian, A. & Nezhad Ali, A. A. (2011). The Effect of Application of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantity and Quality Essential Oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel). Journal of Horticultural Science, 25(1), 25-33. (In Persian)
Murty, M. G. & Ladha, J. K. (1988). Influence of Azospirillum inoculation on the mineral uptake and growth of rice under hydroponic conditions. Plant and Soil, 108, 281–285.
Phillips, J. M. & Hayman, D. S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55(1), 158-161.
Nemati, M. & Dahmardeh, M. (2015). Effect of application of bio-fertilizers and organic manure on yield and morphological index of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Agroecology, 7(1), 135. (In Persian)
Omid Beygi, R. (2007). Approaches for Production and Processing in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. Fekr-e- Rooz, Publication, Tehran, Iran 283 pp. (In Persian)
Osoli, N. & Taleshi, K. (2018). Evaluation the effects of biological fertilizers and vermicompost on some of biological characteristics and essential oil quality of fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) in Khoramabad .Journal of Applied Recherche of Plant Eco physiology, 4(2) ,123-138. (In Persian).
Rahimzadeh, S., Sohrabi, Y., Heidari, Gh. R., Eivazi, A. R. & Hoseini, T. (2011). Effect of bio and chemical fertilizers on yield and quality of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(1), 81-96. (In Persian).
Rezaei- Chiyaneh, E., Pirzad, A. & Farjami, A. (2014). Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Supplier Bacteria on Seed Yield and Essential Oil of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of Agricultural and sustainable production, 4, 72-83. (In Persian).
Rezaei- Chiyaneh, E., Jalilian, J., Ebrahimian, E. & Seyyedi, S. M. (2015). The effect of biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of ajowan (Carum copticum L.) at different irrigation levels. Journal of Agricultural Crops Production, 17, 775-788. (In Persian).
Salehi, A., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F. & Asgharzade, A. (2011). The effect of zeolite, PGPR and vermicompost application on N, P, K concentration, essential oil content and yield in organic cultivation of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(2),
188-201. (In Persian).
Singh, S. & Kapoor, K. (2000). Effects of inoculation of phosphate –solubilising microorganisms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on mungbean grown natural soil conditions, mycorrhiza, 7(5), 249-253.
Tahami, M. K., Jahan, M., Khalilzadeh, H. & Mehdizadeh, M. (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in an ecological cropping system: A study on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil production. Industrial Crops & Products, 107, 97-104.
Tarraf, W., Ruta, C., Tagarelli, A., De Cillis, F., De Mastro, G. (2017). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on plant growth, essential oil production and phosphorus uptake of Salvia officinalis L. Industrial Crops and Products, 102, 144-153.
Talaei, Gh. H. & Amini Dehaghi, M. (2015). Effects of bio and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30(6), 932-942. (In Persian)
Telci, I., Demirtas, I. & Sahin, A. (2009). Variation in plant properties and essential oil composition of sweet fennel (Foneiculum vulgare Mill) fruits during stages of maturity. Industrial Crops and Products, 30,126-130.
Tilak, K. V., Ranganayaki, K. K., Pal, R., De, A. K., Saxena, C. Shekhar, N., Shilpi Mittal, A. K. & Tripathi, B. N. (2005). Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Curr. Sci 89, 136-150.
Yadegari, H., Khammari, I., Salari, M., Fakheri, B. A., Rahimi, M. & Bidarnamani, F. (2017). Effects of different fertilizers and their combination on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(6), 1010-1025. (In Persian).
Zarei, D. & Shabani, G. (2016). Effects of head pruning and different nutritional system (chemical, biological and integrated) on seed yield and oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 61(1), 112-103.