Document Type : Research Paper



To decrease the use of chemical fertilizers and improving the yield and yield components of sunflower, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Tarbiat Modares University in 2014 and 2105. Three irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 40, 60 and 80% of soil water at field capacity (FC)), three soil fertility systems (100% farmyard manure (35% chicken manure + 65% sheep manure), 50% farmyard manure + 50% chemical fertilizer and 100% chemical fertilizer (urea)) and three zeolite rates (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1) were studied in a split factorial arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with irrigation regimes as the main plots, and factorial combination of the other two factors as the subplots. Over two experimental years, there were significant increases in grain yield and water use efficiency by applying either 100% farmyard manure (28.2 + 14.6 ton sheep + chicken manure ha-1, respectively) or integrated fertilizer (14.1 + 7.3 ton sheep + chicken manure ha-1, respectively plus 65 kg urea ha-1) with 5 or 10 ton zeolite ha-1 under all irrigation treatments. Based on the results, irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water at FC was revealed as a most performance of all treatment combinations. The highest oil and protein concentrations of grain were obtained with zeolite application under non-stress conditions. Chemical fertilizer application increased grain protein concentration, while organic manure increased grain oil concentration.


امیدیان ا.، سیادت ع.، ناصری ر. و مرادی م. (1391) اثر محلول پاشی سولفات روی بر عملکرد میزان روغن و پروتئین دانة چهار رقم کلزا. مجله علوم زراعی ایران. 14 (1):16-28.
خدائی جوقان آ. (1394) پاسخ اکوفیزیولوژیک آفتابگردان به سیستم‌های تغذیه‌ای تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری. رسالة دکتری زراعت. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.ایران، 150 صفحه.
صباحی ح.، (1385) بررسی اثرات تلفیق کودهای آلی و شیمیائی بر فعالیت‌های بیولوژیک، خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک و عملکرد کلزا در منطقة زیر آب (ساری). رسالة دکتری. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. تهران، 143 صفحه.
غلامحسینی م.، آقاعلیخانی م. (1387) کاربرد زئولیت ها در خاک، گامی در راستای توسعه کشاورزی پایدار. مجله کشاورزی و توسعه پایدار. 12 (13) : 16-20.
کاظمیان ح. (1383) مقدمه‌ای بر زئولیت‌ها، کانی‌های سحر انگیز .چاپ اول .نشر بهشت، تهران،100 صفحه.
مجیدیان م. (1387) اثر کودشیمیایی نیتروژنه، کود آلی و تنش رطوبت در نظام‌های کشاورزی در مراحل مختلف رشد بر خصوصیات زراعی کمی و کیفی ذرت. رسالة دکتری زراعت. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، 307 صفحه.
Ahmed A., Inoue B.M. and Moritani S. (2010) Effect of saline water irrigation and manure application on the available water content, soil salinity, and growth of wheat. Agriculture Water Management. 97: 165–170.
Adediran J.A., Taiwo L.B., Akande M.O., Sobulo R.A. and Idowu O.J. (2004) Application of organic and inorganic fertilizar for sustainable maize and cowpea yeilds in Nigeria. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 27: 1163- 1181.
Andrianasolo F.A., Champolivier L., Debaeke P. and Maury P. (2016) Source and sink indicators for determining nitrogen, plant density and genotype effects on oil and protein contents in sunflower achenes. Field Crops Research. 192: 33-41.
Arancon N.Q., Edwards C.A., Dick R. and Dick L. (2007) Vermicompost tea production and plant growth impacts. Biocycle. 48: 51–52.
Ayan S., Yahaoglu Z., Gercek V. and Sahin A. (2008) Utilization of zeolite as a substrate for containerized oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.(Link)) seedling propagation. Acta Horticulture. 779: 583-590.
Basu M., Bhadoria P.B.S. and Mahapatra S.C. (2008) Growth, nitrogen fixation, yield and kernel quality of peanut in response to lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer levels. Bioresource Technology 99: 4675-4683.
Bhatia C.R. and Rabson R. (1976) Bioenergetic considerations in cereal breeding for protein improvement. Science. 194: 1418-1421.
Bigelow C.A., Bowman D.C. and Cassel D.K. (2003) Inorganic soil amendments limit nitrogen leaching in in newly constructed sand – based putting green rooting mixture. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research. 2: 1-7.
Camara K.M., Payne W.A. and Rasmussen P.E. (2003) Long-term effects of tillage, nitrogen, and rainfall on Winter Wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Agronomy Journal. 95: 825-835.
Chung Y.C., Son D.H. and Ahn D.H. (2002) Application of natural zeolite for high- strength ammonium-bearing wastewater treatment. pp. 63-64. In: Misaelides, p. (ed.) 6th International conference on the occurrence, properties and utilization of natural zeolites. Greece.
Dale J.E. (1988) The control of leaf expansion. Annual review Plant Physiology Molecule Biology. 42: 55-76.
Dolabridze N, Tsitsisshvili G, Tsitsisshvili V, Alelishvili M and Khazardze N (2002) Regeneraion of clinoptilolite and phillipsite used for treatment of ammonia- containing Water. pp. 81-82.
Eghball B., Wienhold B. and Gilley J. (2006) Comprehensive manure management for improve nutrient utilization and environment. Soil and Water Conservation Research. 1: 128-135.
El-Ghamry A.M. (2011) Soil fertility and potato production as affected by conventional and organic farming systems. Journal of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering. 2: 141-156.
Fereres E., Gimenez C. and Fernandez J.M. (1986) Genetic variability in sunflower cultivars under drought. I.yield relationships. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 37: 578-582.
Girardin P., Tollenaar M., Deltour A. and Muldoon J. (1987) Temporary N starvation in maize (Zea mays L.): effects on development dry matter accumulation and grain yield. Agronomie. 7: 289-296.
Jalilian J., Modarres Sanavy S.A.M., Saberali S.F., Sadat-Asilan K (2012) Effects of the combination of beneficial microbes and nitrogen on sunflower seed yields and seed quality traits under different irrigation regimes. Field Crops Research. 127: 26–34.
Lambers H. and Poorter H. (1992) Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences. Advances in Ecological Research. 23: 187-261.
Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A., AghaAlikhani M., Nassiri-Mahallati M., Zand E., Gonzalez-Andujar J.L. and Azari A. (2013) Agronomic performance, seed quality and nitrogen uptake of Descurainia sophia in response to different nitrogen rates and water regimes. Industrial Crops and Products. 44: 583–592.
Mooleki S.P., Schoenau J.J., Charles J.L. and Gwen G. (2004) Effect of rat, frequency and incorporation of feedlot cattele manure on Soil nitrogen availability crop performance and nitrogen use efficiency nin east-central Saskachwan. Canadin Journal of Soil Science. 84: 199-210.
Munir M.A., Malik M.A. and Saleem M.F. (2007) Impact of integration of crop manuring and nitrogen application on growth, Malik, yield and quality of spring planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39: 441-449.
Parmer D.K., Sharma P.K. and Sharma T.R. (1998) Integrated nutrient supply system for, DDP 68, vegrtable pea (Pisum sativum var arvense) in dry temperate zone of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricaltural Sciences. 68: 84-86.
Polat E., Karaca M., Demir H. and Naci Onus A. (2004) Use of natural zeolita clinoptiloltie in agriculture. Journal of Fruit Ornam.journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 12: 183-189.
SAS Institute (2008) The SAS System for Windows, Release 9.2. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Carry, NC, USA.
Schneiter A.A. and Miller J.F. (1981) Description of sunflower growth stage. Crop Science. 21: 901-903.
Shaw J.W. and Andrews R. (2001) Cation exchange capacity affects greens’ truf growth. Golf Course Management. March 2001. 73-77.
Tiquia S.M., Tam N.F.Y. and Hoodgkiss I.J. (1996) Effect of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig- manure sawdust litter and pig sludge. Bioresourse Technology. 65: 43-49.