Delay in planting and low precipitation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) farming is the problem in Western Azerbaijan province - Iran. In order to evaluate the effects of seed priming an experiment was conducted under laboratory, green house and field conditions in 2006-7. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in which first factor included of four cultivars (Zarrin, Shahriar, Sardary and Azar) and second factor was including the distilled water, 10% polyethylene glycol (8000), 2.5% KCl, 10% Urea, 4% Micro nutrient, 1000ppm Cycocel (CCC), 20ppm Auxin (IAA) and non priming treatment as control. The maximum water absorbed was for Shahriar with distilled water. IAA and CCC treatments increased seed weight. Analysis of variance showed that the lengths and dry weights of plumule and radical, chlorophyll content, absorbed nitrogen, grain yield and its components, total dry matter and plant height were significantly different (P? 0.05). All of priming treatments had more absorbed nitrogen, grain yield and its components than control. CCC treatment had the highest value of lengths and dry weights for plumule and radical, grain yield, but the lowest value of plant height. In contrast urea had the negative effects for seedling related traits.


1. Bittencourt MC, Dias DCS, Santos LA and Arajo EF (2005) Germination of wheat. Seed Sci. Technol. 14: 321-325.
2. Bray CM, Davison PA, Ashraf M and Taylor RM (1989) Biochemical events during osmopriming of leek seed. Ann. Appl. Biol. 102: 185-193.
3. Bewley JD and Black M (1994) Seeds: Physiology of development and germination. 6th Ed. Plenum Press, New York. 
4. Bremner JM and Mulvaney RL (1982) Nitrogen-total, In: Page AL (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2,  2nd edn, Agronomy Monograph, 9, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. Pp. 595-622.
5. Cantliffe J, Fischer M and Nell A (1984) Mechanism of seed priming in circumventing thermodormancy in Lettuce. Plant Physiol. 75: 290-294.
6. Chiu KY, Chen CL and Sung JM (2002) Effect of priming temperature on storability of primed sh2 sweet corn. Crop Sci. 42: 1996-2003.
7. Chivasa W, Harris D, Chiduza C and Nymudeza P (1998) Agronomic practices, major crops and farmer’s perceptions of the importance of good stand establishment in musikavanhu. J. Appl. Sci. 4: 109-125.
8. Dahal P, Bradford KJ and Jones RA (1990) Effects of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rates of tomato genotypes. II. Germination at reduced water potential. J. Exp. Bot. 41: 1441-1453.
9. Das JC and Choudhury AK (1996) Effect of seed hardening, potassium fertilizer, and paraquat as anti-transpirant on rainfed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ind. J. Agron. 41: 397-400.
10. Dell Aquila A and Taranto G (1986) Cell division and DNA synthesis during osmopriming treatment and following germination in aged wheat embryos. Seed Sci. Technol. 14: 333-341.
11. Donaldson E, Schillinger WF and Dofing SM (2001) Straw production and grain yield relationships in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 41: 100-106.
12. Duman I (2006) Effects of seed priming with PEG and K3 Po4 on germination and seedling growth in Lettuce. Pak J. Biol. Sci. 9: 923-928.
13. Farhoudi R and Sharifzadeh F (2006) The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings grown under saline conditions. Ind. J. Crop Sci. 1: 74-78.
14. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Tabassum R and Ahmad N (2006) Evaluation of seed vigour enhancement techniques on physiological and biochemical techniques on physiological basis in coars rice (Oriza sativa L.). Seed Sci. Technol. 34: 741-750.
15. Fu JR, Lu SH, Chen RZ, Zhang BZ, Liu ZS, Li ZS and Cai DY (1988) Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming. Plant Physiol. 126: 835-848.
16. Gallardo K, Claudette J, Groot SPC, Puype M, Demol H, Vandekerckhove J and Job D (2001) Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming. Plant Physiol. 126: 835-848.
17. Giri SG and Schillinger WF (2003) Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence, and yield. Crop Sci. 43: 2135-2141.
18. Harris D, Joshi A, Khan PA, Gothakar P and Sodhi PS (1999) On-farm seed priming in semi arid agriculture: Development and evaluation in corn, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Exp. Agr. 35: 15-29.
19. Harris D, Rashid A, Arif M and Yunas M (2004) Alleviating micronutrient deficiencies in alkaline soils of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan: on farm seed priming with zinc in wheat and chickpea. In “International Workshop on Agricultural Strategies to reduce Micronutrient Problems in Mountains and Other Marginal Areas in South and South East Asia”. Kathmandu, 8-10 September, 2004. Nepal Agricultural Research Council.
20. Harris D, Breese WA and Rao K (2005) The improvement of crop yield in marginal environments using on-farm seed priming: nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and disease resistance. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 56: 1211-1218. 
21. Hugh JE and Davis F (2003) Effect of drought stress on leaf and whole canopy radiation efficiency and yield of maize. Agron. J. 95: 688-696.
22. Kulkarni GN and Eshanna MR (1988) Effect of pre-soaking of corn seed on seed quality. Seed Res. 16: 37-40.
23. Mazor L, Perl M and Negbi M (1984) Changes in some ATP-dependent activities in seed during treatment with polyethylene glycol and during redrying process. J. Exp. Bot. 35: 1119-1127.
24. Misra NM and Dwibedi DP (1980) Effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on growth and dry matter accumulation of high yielding wheats under rainfed conditions. Ind .J. Agron. 25: 230-234.
25. Musa A, Harris D, Johansen C and Kumar J (2001) Short duration chick peato replace fallow after a manrice: the role of on farm seed priming in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Exp. Agr. 37: 509-521.
26 . Osborn DJ (1993) Function of DNA synthesis and in dormancy. Seed Sci. Res. 3: 43-53.
27. Ozbingol N, Corbineau F and Come D (1998) Responses of tomato seeds to osmoconditioning as related to temperature and oxygen. Seed Sci. Res. 8: 377-384.
28. Parera CA and Cantliffe DJ (1994) Pre-sowing seed priming. In: Maclaren JS (Eds.), Chemical manipulation of crop growth and development. Hort. Rev. Butterworth, London. 16: 109-141.
29. Sainio PP, Rajala A, Simmons S, Caspers R and Stuthman DD (2003) Plant growth regulator and daylength effects on preanthesis main shoot and tiller growth in conventional and dwarf oat. Crop Sci. 43: 227-233. 
30. Subedi KD and Ma BL (2005) Seed priming dose not improve corn yield in a humid temperate environment. Agron. J. 97: 211-218.
31. Vasquez-Ramos JM and Sanchez MDIP (2004) The cell cycle and seed germination. Seed Sci. Res. 13: 113-130.